Table of contents
Baruch Shalom Ha-Levi Ashlag (Rabash)/Articles
What Is, “A Cup of Blessing Must Be Full,” in the Work?
A Congregation Is No Less than Ten. 28 (1986)
A Near Way and a Far Way. 26 (1986)
A Prayer of Many. 15 (1986)
A Real Prayer Is over a Real Deficiency. 11 (1986)
A Righteous Who Is Happy, a Righteous Who Is Suffering. 38 (1985)
According to What Is Explained Concerning “Love Thy Friend as Thyself”. 7 (1984)
All of Israel Have a Part in the Next World. 3 (1987)
And Hezekiah Turned His Face to the Wall. 15 (1985)
And I Pleaded with the Lord. 34 (1985)
And It Shall Come to Pass When You Come to the Land that the Lord Your God Gives You. 18 (1984)
And Jacob Went Out. 10 (1985)
And There Was Evening and There Was Morning. 36 (1985)
And the Lord Appeared to Him by the Oaks of Mamre. 6 (1985)
But the More They Afflicted Them. 16 (1985)
Come unto Pharaoh - 1. 19 (1985)
Come unto Pharaoh - 2. 13 (1986)
Concerning Above Reason. 21 (1986)
Concerning Ancestral Merit. 11 (1984)
Concerning Bestowal. 16 (1984)
Concerning Branch and Root. 2 (1985)
Concerning Fear and Joy. 23 (1986)
Concerning Help that Comes from Above. 8 (1986)
Concerning Hesed [Mercy]. 4 (1986)
Concerning Joy. 19 (1986)
Concerning Love of Friends. 2 (1984)
Concerning Prayer. 10 (1986)
Concerning Respecting the Father. 5 (1986)
Concerning Truth and Faith. 3 (1985)
Concerning Yenika [Nursing] and Ibur [Impregnation]. 31 (1986)
Concerning the Debate between Jacob and Laban. 11 (1985)
Concerning the Hanukkah Candle. 9 (1986)
Concerning the Importance of Friends. 17-1 (1984)
Concerning the Importance of Society. 12 (1984)
Concerning the Reward of the Receivers. 32 (1985)
Concerning the Slanderers. 18 (1985)
Confidence. 6 (1986)
Forevermore One Sells All That Is His and Marries a Wise Disciple's Daughter. 14 (1984)
Go Forth From Your Land. 5 (1985)
He Whose Heart Is Hardened. 20 (1985)
Hear Our Voice. 39 (1985)
How to Recognize One Who Serves God from One Who Does Not Serve Him. 29 (1988)
I Am the First and I Am the Last. 14 (1985)
If a Woman Inseminates. 22 (1986)
In Every Thing We Must Discern between Light and Kli. 25 (1985)
Is It Possible Something Negative Comes From Above. 15 (1984)
It is Forbidden to Hear a Good Thing From a Bad Person. 4 (1987)
Jacob Dwelled in the Land Where His Father Had Lived. 12 (1985)
Jacob Went Out. 9 (1985)
Judges and Officers. 34 (1986)
Know Today and Reply to Your Heart. 17 (1985)
Lend Ear, O Heaven. 2 (1986)
Lishma and Lo Lishma. 29 (1986)
Love of Friends - 1. 3 (1984)
Love of Friends - 2. 6 (1984)
Make for Yourself a Rav and Buy Yourself a Friend - 1. 1 (1985)
Make for Yourself a Rav and Buy Yourself a Friend - 2. 8 (1985)
Man Is Rewarded with Righteousness and Peace through the Torah. 3 (1986)
Mighty Rock of My Salvation. 13 (1985)
Moses Went. 1 (1986)
On My Bed at Night. 23 (1985)
One Does Not Regard Oneself as Wicked. 31 (1985)
One Should Always Sell the Beams of His House. 9 (1984)
One’s Greatness Depends on the Measure of One’s Faith in the Future. 9 (1987)
Peace After a Dispute Is More Important than Having No Disputes At All. 23 (1987)
Purim, and the Commandment: Until He until He Does Not Know. 11 (1987)
Purpose of Society - 1. 1-1 (1984)
Purpose of Society - 2. 1-2 (1984)
Repentance. 27 (1985)
Should One Sin and Be Guilty. 20 (1986)
Show Me Your Glory. 26 (1985)
Sometimes Spirituality Is Called "a Soul". 13 (1984)
The Agenda of the Assembly - 1. 17-2 (1984)
The Agenda of the Assembly - 2. 17 (1986)
The Connection between Passover, Matza, and Maror. 14 (1987)
The Creator and Israel Went into Exile. 27 (1986)
The Daily Schedule. 41 (1989)
The Difference between Charity and Gift. 24 (1986)
The Difference between Mercy and Truth and Untrue Mercy. 8 (1987)
The Difference between the Work of the General Public and the Work of the Individual . 16 (1987)
The Felons of Israel. 33 (1985)
The Fifteenth of Av. 35 (1986)
The Good Who Does Good, to the Bad and to the Good. 1 (1987)
The Importance of Faith that Is Always Present. 6 (1987)
The Importance of Recognition of Evil. 2 (1987)
The Importance of a Prayer of Many. 7 (1986)
The Klipa [Shell/Peel] that Precedes the Fruit. 30 (1986)
The Life of Sarah. 7 (1985)
The Lord Has Chosen Jacob for Himself. 16 (1986)
The Lord Is Near to All Who Call upon Him. 29 (1985)
The Main Difference between a Beastly Soul and a Godly Soul. 17 (1988)
The Measure of Practicing Mitzvot [Commandments]. 25 (1986)
The Miracle of Hanukkah. 7 (1987)
The Need for Love of Friends. 14 (1988)
The Order of the Work, from Baal HaSulam. 46 (1990)
The Reason for Straightening the Legs and Covering the Head During the Prayer. 32 (1986)
The Severity of Teaching Idol Worshippers the Torah. 17 (1987)
The Spies. 28 (1985)
The Whole of the Torah Is One Holy Name. 22 (1985)
These Are the Generations of Noah. 4 (1985)
These Candles Are Sacred. 12 (1991)
They Helped Every One His Friend. 4 (1984)
Three Prayers. 30 (1985)
Three Times in the Work. 24 (1985)
Two Discernments in Holiness. 15 (1987)
We Should Always Discern between Torah and Work. 21 (1985)
What Are Banners in the Work?. 32 (1991)
What Are Commandments that a Person Tramples with His Feet. 33 (1986)
What Are Day and Night in the Work?. 34 (1988)
What Are Dirty Hands in the Work of the Creator?. 21 (1987)
What Are Holiness and Purity, in the Work?. 28 (1991)
What Are Judges and Officers in the Work?. 38 (1989)
What Are Merits and Iniquities of a Righteous in the Work?. 22 (1988)
What Are Revealed and Concealed in the Work of the Creator?. 19 (1987)
What Are Silver, Gold, Israel, Rest of Nations, in the Work?. 19 (1988)
What Are Spies in the Work?. 33 (1989)
What Are Torah and Work in the Way of the Creator?. 12 (1988)
What Are Truth and Falsehood in the Work?. 40 (1991)
What Are a Blessing and a Curse, in the Work?. 42 (1990)
What Are the Forces Required in the Work?. 11 (1989)
What Are the Four Qualities of Those Who Go to the Seminary, in the Work?. 10 (1988)
What Are the Light Mitzvot that a Person Tramples with His Heels, in the Work?. 41 (1990)
What Are the Times of Prayer and Gratitude in the Work?. 7 (1990)
What Are the Two Actions During a Descent?. 32 (1988)
What Are the Two Discernments before Lishma?. 11 (1988)
What Are “A Layperson’s Vessels,” in the Work?. 34 (1990)
What Are “Blessing” and “Curse” in the Work?. 27 (1987)
What Beginning in Lo Lishma Means in the Work. 23 (1988)
What Does It Mean that Before the Egyptian Minister Fell, Their Outcry Was Not Answered, in the Work?. 15 (1990)
What Does It Mean that Charity to the Poor Makes the Holy Name, in the Work?. 31 (1991)
What Does It Mean that Man’s Blessing Is the Blessing of the Sons, in the Work?. 14 (1991)
What Does It Mean that Moses Was Perplexed about the Birth of the Moon, in the Work?. 23 (1990)
What Does It Mean that Oil Is Called “Good Deeds” in the Work?. 32 (1989)
What Does It Mean that One Should Bear a Son and a Daughter, in the Work?. 24 (1991)
What Does It Mean that One Who Prays Should Explain His Words Properly?. 8 (1988)
What Does It Mean that One Who Repents Should Be in Happiness?. 25 (1991)
What Does It Mean that One Who Was On a Far Off Way Is Postponed to a Second Passover, in the Work?. 30 (1991)
What Does It Mean that Our Sages Said, “King David Did Not Have a Life,” in the Work?. 10 (1990)
What Does It Mean that We Read the Portion, Zachor [Remember], Before Purim, in the Work?. 21 (1991)
What Does It Mean that a High Priest Should Take a Virgin Wife, in the Work?. 29 (1991)
What Does It Mean that a Judge Must Judge Absolutely Truthfully, in the Work?. 45 (1991)
What Does It Mean that by the Unification of the Creator and the Shechina, All Iniquities Are Atoned?. 13 (1990)
What Does It Mean that the Creation of the World Was by Largess?. 5 (1989)
What Does It Mean that the Creator Favors Someone, in the Work?. 33 (1991)
What Does It Mean that the Evil Inclination Ascends and Slanders, in the Work?. 20 (1989)
What Does It Mean that the Ladder Is Diagonal, in the Work?. 10 (1989)
What Does It Mean that the Right Must Be Greater than the Left, in the Work?. 39 (1991)
What Does It Mean that the Right and the Left Are in Contrast, in the Work?. 47 (1991)
What Does It Mean that the Righteous Suffers Afflictions?. 9 (1988)
What Does It Mean that the Torah Was Given Out of the Darkness in the Work?. 21 (1988)
What Does the Rule "Love Thy Friend as Thyself" Give Us. 5 (1984)
What Does “May We Be the Head and Not the Tail” Mean in the Work?. 1 (1990)
What Does “The King Stands on His Field When the Crop Is Ripe” Mean in the Work?. 10 (1991)
What Does, “Everything that Comes to Be a Burnt Offering Is Male,” Mean in the Work?. 24 (1990)
What Is Above Reason in the Work?. 6 (1989)
What Is Do Not Add and Do Not Take Away in the Work?. 28 (1987)
What Is Eating Their Fruits in This World and Keeping the Principal for the Next World, in the Work?. 34 (1991)
What Is Half a Shekel in the Work - 1. 12 (1987)
What Is Half a Shekel in the Work? - 2. 20 (1990)
What Is Heaviness of the Head in the Work?. 25 (1987)
What Is Making a Covenant in the Work. 31 (1987)
What Is Man’s Private Possession?. 20 (1987)
What Is Peace in the Work?. 34 (1989)
What Is Preparation for Selichot [Forgiveness]. 36 (1986)
What Is Revealing a Portion and Covering Two Portions in the Work?. 26 (1991)
What Is True Hesed in the Work?. 14 (1990)
What Is a Flood of Water in the Work?. 4 (1989)
What Is a Great or a Small Sin in the Work?. 2 (1989)
What Is a Groom’s Meal?. 12 (1989)
What Is a Light Commandment. 26 (1987)
What Is a War Over Authority in the Work – 1. 30 (1987)
What Is an Optional War, in the work? - 2. 44 (1990)
What Is the Advantage in the Work More than in the Reward?. 5 (1987)
What Is the Assistance that He who Comes to Purify Receives in the Work?. 17 (1990)
What Is the Blessing, “Who Made a Miracle for Me in This Place,” in the Work?. 15 (1991)
What Is the Degree One Should Achieve in Order Not to Have to Reincarnate? . 10 (1984)
What Is the Difference between General and Individual in the Work of the Creator?. 33 (1988)
What Is the Difference between Law and Judgment in the Work?. 26 (1988)
What Is the Difference between a Field and a Man of the Field, in the Work?. 6 (1988)
What Is the Difference between the Gate of Tears and the Rest of the Gates?. 3 (1989)
What Is the Extent of Teshuva [Repentance]?. 2 (1988)
What Is the Foundation on which Kedusha [Holiness] Is Built?. 16 (1988)
What Is the Gift that a Person Asks of the Creator?. 22 (1987)
What Is the Help in the Work that One Should Ask of the Creator?. 35 (1988)
What Is the Importance of the Groom, that His Iniquities Are Forgiven?. 7 (1988)
What Is the Main Deficiency for which One Should Pray?. 12 (1986)
What Is the Meaning of Failure in the Work?. 2 (1990)
What Is the Meaning of Lighting the Menorah in the Work?. 30 (1989)
What Is the Meaning of Suffering in the Work?. 27 (1989)
What Is the Meaning of the Purification of a Cow’s Ashes, in the Work?. 23 (1991)
What Is the Meaning of “Reply unto Your Heart”?. 14 (1989)
What Is the Meaning of “Spies,” in the Work?. 35 (1991)
What Is the Measure of Repentance?. 1 (1989)
What Is the Need to Borrow Kelim [Vessels] from the Egyptians?. 14 (1986)
What Is the Order in Blotting Out Amalek?. 22 (1990)
What Is the Prayer for Help and for Forgiveness in the Work?. 4 (1988)
What Is the Preparation on the Eve of Shabbat, in the Work?. 25 (1988)
What Is the Preparation to Receive the Torah in the Work? - 2. 29 (1989)
What Is the Prohibition to Bless on an Empty Table, in the Work?. 16 (1989)
What Is the Prohibition to Greet Before Blessing the Creator, in the Work?. 17 (1989)
What Is the Prohibition to Teach Torah to Idol-Worshippers in the Work?. 31 (1989)
What Is the Reason for which Israel Were Rewarded with Inheritance of the Land, in the Work?. 44 (1991)
What Is the Reward in the Work of Bestowal?. 20 (1988)
What Is the Son of the Beloved and the Son of the Hated in the Work?. 46 (1991)
What Is the Substance of Slander and Against Whom Is It?. 10 (1987)
What Is the Work of Man, in the Work, which Is Attributed to the Creator?. 31 (1988)
What Is the “Bread of an Evil-Eyed Man” in the Work?. 13 (1989)
What Is the “Right Line,” in the Work?. 38 (1991)
What Is the “Torah” and What Is “The Statute of the Torah,” in the Work?. 37 (1991)
What Is “A Lily Among the Thorns,” in the Work?. 22 (1991)
What Is “A Road Whose Beginning Is Thorns and Its End Is a Plain” in the Work?. 37 (1989)
What Is “According to the Sorrow, So Is the Reward”?. 29 (1987)
What Is “Do Not Slight the Blessing of a Layperson” in the Work?. 24 (1989)
What Is “For It Is Your Wisdom and Understanding in the Eyes of the Nations,” in the Work?. 36 (1989)
What Is “For Lack of Spirit and for Hard Work,” in the Work?. 16 (1990)
What Is “He Who Defiles Himself Is Defiled from Above” in the Work?. 26 (1989)
What Is “He Who Did Not Toil on the Eve of Shabbat, What Will He Eat on Shabbat” in the Work?. 7 (1989)
What Is “He Who Enjoys at a Groom’s Meal,” in the Work?. 35 (1990)
What Is “He Who Has a Flaw Shall Not Offer [Sacrifice]” in the Work?. 25 (1989)
What Is “Man” and What Is “Beast” in the Work?. 7 (1991)
What Is “The Concealed Things Belong to the Lord, and the Revealed Things Belong to Us,” in the Work?. 24 (1988)
What Is “The Earth Feared and Was Still,” in the Work?. 33 (1990)
What Is “There Is No Blessing in an Empty Place” in the Work?. 15 (1988)
What Is “the People’s Shepherd Is the Whole People” in the Work?. 13 (1988)
What Is, His Guidance Is Concealed and Revealed?. 28 (1988)
What Is, If He Swallows the Bitter Herb, He Will Not Come Out, in the Work?. 23 (1989)
What Is, “A Cup of Blessing Must Be Full,” in the Work?. 38 (1990)
What Is, “A Drunken Man Must Not Pray, in the Work?. 21 (1989)
What Is, “A Ladder Is Set on the Earth, and Its Top Reaches Heaven,” in the Work?. 9 (1990)
What Is, “An Ox Knows Its Owner, etc., Israel Does Not Know,” in the Work?. 42 (1991)
What Is, “And Abraham Was Old, of Many Days,” in the Work?. 8 (1991)
What Is, “Anyone Who Mourns forJerusalem Is Rewarded with Seeing Its Joy,” in the Work?. 39 (1990)
What Is, “As I Am for Nothing, so You Are for Nothing,” in the Work?. 21 (1990)
What Is, “Calamity that Comes upon the Wicked Begins with the Righteous,” in the Work?. 9 (1989)
What Is, “Every Blade of Grass Has an Appointee Above, Who Strikes It and Tells It, Grow!” in the Work?. 27 (1990)
What Is, “Every Day They Will Be as New in Your Eyes,” in the Work?. 40 (1989)
What Is, “For I Have Hardened His Heart,” in the work?. 17 (1991)
What Is, “For You Are the Least of All the Peoples,” in the Work?. 40 (1990)
What Is, “He Who Is Without Sons,” in the Work?. 35 (1989)
What Is, “If a Woman Inseminates First, She Delivers a Male Child,” in the Work?. 27 (1991)
What Is, “Peace, Peace, to the Far and to the Near,” in the Work?. 36 (1991)
What Is, “Praise the Lord, All Nations,” in the Work?. 25 (1990)
What Is, “Return, O Israel, Unto the Lord Your God,” in the Work?. 2 (1991)
What Is, “Rise Up, O Lord, and Let Your Enemies Be Scattered,” in the Work?. 19 (1991)
What Is, “The Children of Esau and Ishmael Did Not Want to Receive the Torah,” in the Work?. 36 (1990)
What Is, “The Concealed Things Belong to the Lord Our God,” in the work?. 45 (1990)
What Is, “The Creator Does Not Tolerate the Proud,” in the Work?. 27 (1988)
What Is, “The Good Deeds of the Righteous Are the Generations,” in the Work?. 5 (1991)
What Is, “The Herdsmen of Abram’s Cattle and the Herdsmen of Lot’s Cattle,” in the Work?. 6 (1991)
What Is, “The Righteous Become Apparent through the Wicked,” in the Work?. 15 (1989)
What Is, “The Saboteur Was in the Flood, and Was Putting to Death,” in the Work?. 4 (1991)
What Is, “The Shechina Is a Testimony to Israel,” in the Work?. 37 (1990)
What Is, “The Smell of His Garments,” in the Work?. 9 (1991)
What Is, “The Torah Exhausts a Person’s Strength,” in the Work?. 29 (1990)
What Is, “The Torah Speaks Only Against the Evil Inclination,” in the Work?. 39 (1989)
What Is, “The Wicked Will Prepare and the Righteous Will Wear,” in the Work?. 3 (1991)
What Is, “There Is No Blessing in That Which Is Counted,” in the Work?. 18 (1989)
What Is, “There Is None as Holy as the Lord, for There Is None Besides You,” in the Work?. 26 (1990)
What Is, “There Is Nothing that Has No Place,” in the Work?. 20 (1991)
What Is, “Warn the Great about the Small,” in the Work?. 28 (1990)
What Is, “We Have No Other King But You,” in the Work?. 1 (1991)
What Is, “When Israel Are in Exile, the Shechina Is With Them,” in the Work?. 5 (1988)
What Is, “You Shall Not Plant for Yourself an Asherah by the Altar,” in the Work?. 43 (1990)
What Is, “You Will See My Back, But My Face Shall Not Be Seen,” in the Work?. 43 (1991)
What It Means that Esau Was Called “A Man of the Field,” in the Work. 8 (1990)
What It Means that We Should Raise the Right Hand over the Left Hand, in the Work. 18 (1991)
What It Means that the Generations of the Righteous are Good Deeds, in the Work. 4 (1990)
What It Means that the Good Inclination and the Evil Inclination Guard a Person in the Work. 11 (1991)
What It Means that the Land Did Not Bear Fruit before Man Was Created, in the Work. 5 (1990)
What It Means that the Name of the Creator is “Truth”. 3 (1988)
What It Means that the World Was Created for the Torah. 3 (1990)
What It Means that “Law and Ordinance” Is the Name of the Creator in the Work. 30 (1990)
What It Means, in the Work, that If the Good Grows, So Grows the Bad. 8 (1989)
What Placing the Hanukkah Candle on the Left Means in the Work. 11 (1990)
What Should One Do If He Was Born With Bad Qualities?. 41 (1991)
What is Unfounded Hatred in the Work. 24 (1987)
What is the Preparation for Reception of the Torah - 1. 18 (1987)
What to Look For in the Assembly of Friends. 30 (1988)
What “Israel Do the Creator’s Will” Means in the Work. 32 (1990)
What “There Is No Blessing in That Which Is Counted” Means in the Work. 31 (1990)
What “You Have Given the Strong to the Hands of the Weak” Means in the Work. 13 (1991)
When Is One Considered “A Servant of the Creator” in the Work?. 18 (1988)
When Should One Use Pride in the Work?. 6 (1990)
When a Person Knows What Is Fear of the Creator. 35 (1985)
Which Keeping of Torah and Mitzvot Purifies the Heart. 8 (1984)
Who Causes the Prayer. 18 (1986)
Who Needs to Know that a Person Withstood the Test?. 28 (1989)
Who Testifies to a Person. 37 (1985)
Why Are Four Questions Asked Specifically on Passover Night?. 22 (1989)
Why Is Shabbat Called Shin-Bat in the Work?. 19 (1989)
Why Is the Torah Called “Middle Line” in the Work? - 1. 12 (1990)
Why Is the Torah Called “Middle Line” in the Work? - 2. 19 (1990)
Why Life Is Divided into Two Discernments. 1 (1988)
Why We Need “Reply unto Your Heart,” to Know that the Lord, He Is God, in the Work. 16 (1991)
Why the Festival of Matzot Is Called Passover. 13 (1987)
Why the Speech of Shabbat Must Not Be as the Speech of a Weekday, in the Work. 18 (1990)
You Stand Today, All of You. 19 (1984)

What Is, “A Cup of Blessing Must Be Full,” in the Work?

Article 38, 1990

It is written in The Zohar (Pinhas, Item 630), “‘Full,’ which is said regarding a cup of blessing, is as it is written, ‘A cup full of the blessing of the Lord.’ So a man should be whole, as it is written, ‘And Jacob came whole.’ There must not be any flaw in it, for ‘all that has a blemish will not approach.’ Likewise, the letters Aleph-Lamed-Mem [mute] with Yod-Hey are the letters of Elokim [God], are as the count of ‘cup,’ namely eighty-six [in Gematria]. For this reason, the cup must be full, for if you reverse the word Ilem [Aleph-Lamed-Mem, mute], you will find Maleh [full], for the [word] ‘cup,’ in Gematria, is ‘full,’ Yod-Hey.”

We should understand the following:

1) What does it imply that when wine is poured into a cup and it is full, it is called “a cup full of the blessing of the Creator”? This means that if the cup is not filled with wine, the blessing of the Creator cannot be?

2) Why does it say, “So a man should be whole,” like the cup with the wine? What does it add to us by this? After all, if the cup is already filled with the blessing of the Creator, why does man also need to be like that, implying that otherwise he cannot receive the blessing? Therefore, with regard to whom is the cup called “blessing of the Creator”? Does the cup need the blessing?

3) The most perplexing is what he says, that man should be whole, as it is written, “All that has a blemish will not approach.” This implies that one who has a flaw can no longer approach the Creator. This means that one who is missing a limb can no longer approach the Creator and must stay far from the Creator and has no freedom of choice.

4) What does it imply that he says Ilem [mute] and Maleh [full] are the same letters, that a cup in Gematria is Maleh Yod-Hey [filled with the Creator]?

To understand all the above, we must remember the whole order of the work that we were given to do, as it is written, “Which God has created to do.” We said several times that there are two opposite discernments before us, which are called 1) the purpose of creation, which is His desire to do good to His creations, meaning for the creatures to receive delight and pleasure, 2) the correction of creation, for the creatures to strive to bestow upon the Creator, so He will enjoy. That is, the will to receive for oneself wants to enjoy, and the Creator gave him this desire, but he relinquishes this desire and wants only for the Creator to enjoy.

It follows that the two are opposites. Hence, it is hard work to achieve such a desire called “desire to bestow contentment upon one’s Maker,” and relinquish the desire for self-benefit.

In order to be able to emerge from the control of the will to receive, we must begin in Lo Lishma [not for Her sake], meaning for our own benefit. In other words, by observing Torah and Mitzvot [commandments/good deeds], he will be rewarded in this world, as it is written in The Zohar, that he will have life, health, and sustenance. Otherwise, he will not be able to enjoy the corporeal life in this world. When a person believes this, he has someone who compels him to observe the Torah and Mitzvot. This is called “believing in reward and punishment, meaning that he observes Torah and Mitzvot because he is afraid of punishment and expects to receive reward.

Sometimes the reward and punishment are expressed in a person as reward and punishment in the next world, where there are the Garden of Eden and Hell, and this is the reason compelling him to observe Torah and Mitzvot. And since from Lo Lishma we come to Lishma [for Her sake], meaning that the light in the Torah illuminates to him that there is a different manner of reward and punishment—where the reward is to be rewarded with Dvekut [adhesion] with the Creator. At that time, he can feel the greatness of the King, that this is the reward he expects, and he regards as punishment when he sees and feels that he is separated from the Life of Lives and that he is far from the Creator. This, to him, is the biggest punishment.

It follows that even when a person already has some sensation of Torah and Mitzvot, which the Lo Lishma has caused him, when sometimes he begins to feel a little bit of the greatness of the Creator, this causes him to want to annul before Him as a candle before a torch. At that time, a person cannot understand why he wants to annul before Him now, and annul all of his own reality before the Creator. Rather, this comes to him as though it is a natural thing, meaning that even though he does not understand what is being done with him now—that he wants to annul—but in reality, so it is. This is called “an awakening from above,” where a person’s hand does not reach. “Hand” means attainment, from the words “When a hand attains,” meaning that a person does not understand why he wants to completely annul before Him.

However, later, when the awakening departs from him, a person begins to yearn to achieve annulment before the Creator, and wants to obtain the feeling he had while in ascent, but now he begins to see how far he is from this, and all his organs resist such ideas as annulling self-benefit and that all his concerns will be how to bring contentment to his Maker.

At that time, he sees that the world has grown dark on him. He cannot find a place from which to receive vitality, and then he sees that he is in a state of descent and lowliness. When he comes to such a descent, he sees that no one has such bad thoughts. However, one should believe in the sages that such thoughts come from above, meaning that from above, they want this person who now wants to approach the Creator to suffer descents because by having descents, he will feel the need for the Creator to lift him.

This is as it is written, “He lifts the indigent from the trash.” That is, precisely when he feels that he is in the trash, meaning that all those things that he regarded as trash, as animal food, who eat the waste that people throw in the trash, and of which they say that it is food that is unfit for human consumption, as he himself says during an ascent.

But now that the Creator wants to bring him closer, a person should feel his lack, and then he can receive a filling for the lack. It follows that precisely when a person is in the trash and from there searches for his food, when he sees to what state he has come after all the labor he has given in order to obtain the desire to bestow contentment upon his Maker, then he can make an earnest prayer. Yet, a person does not always have the strength to believe.

However, when a person is already standing near the place from which he will receive the help from above, and “near” means that the Kli [vessel], meaning the desire to bestow, is far away from him, then he sees that only the Creator can save him. As Baal HaSulam said, this is the most important point in man’s work, for then he has close contact with the Creator because he sees one hundred percent that nothing can help him but the Creator Himself.

Although he believes this, still, this faith does not always illuminate for him that specifically now is the best time to receive the salvation of the Creator, that specifically now he can be saved and the Creator will bring him closer, meaning give him the desire to bestow and emerge from the control of self-love, which is called “exodus from Egypt.” In other words, he comes out of the control of the Egyptians, who afflicted Israel and did not let them do the holy work. “And the children of Israel sighed from the work, and their cry rose up to God,” and then the Creator brought them out from the exile in Egypt.

In other words, since the people of Israel felt the enslavement and wanted to escape from this exile that the Egyptians were enslaving them, when they came to this important point of feeling their lowliness, the Creator brought them out of Egypt. This is as the ARI says, that when the people of Israel were in Egypt, they were already in forty-nine gates of Tuma’a [impurity], and then the Creator brought them out from Egypt.

This means that they already came to the worst lowliness, the lowest that can be, and then the Creator brought them out.

It follows that when a person sees that he is in utter lowliness, he should believe that specifically now is the time when the Creator will bring him closer. And if the faith does not shine for him then, on the spot, he escapes the campaign.

It follows that the whole order of the labor that He has given is seemingly for nothing. But later, he is given another awakening from above, and once again he forgets what he had during the descent, and thinks once more that he will no longer have descents, and so on repeatedly. A person needs great mercy in order not to escape the campaign. Although he uses the counsels that our sages said, “I have created the evil inclination; I have created the Torah as a spice,” but the person says that he has already used this advice several times to no avail.

He also says that he has already used the advice “He who comes to purify is aided,” and it is as though all the counsels are not for him. Thus, he does not know what to do. This is the worst state for a person, meaning he wants to escape from these states but has nowhere to run. At that time he suffers torments at being between despair and confidence. But then a person says, “Where will I turn?”

At that time, the only advice is prayer. Yet, this prayer is also without any guarantee, so it follows that then he must pray to believe that the Creator does hear a prayer, and everything that one feels in these states is to his benefit. But this can be only above reason, meaning although the mind tells him, “After all the calculations, you see that nothing can help you,” he should believe this, too, above reason, that the Creator can deliver him from the will to receive for himself, in return for which he will receive the desire to bestow. Then, when a person receives from the Creator the desire to bestow, he becomes whole with the Creator, meaning he has been rewarded with equivalence of form, which is called “unification.”

At that time, a person is considered “unblemished,” since all of man’s blemishes are that he has bad thoughts about spirituality. That is, instead of feeling the importance of Kedusha [holiness], that it is something very important, when he wants to annul before Him, when he has love of the Creator because of the yearning for the Creator, to him it is the opposite. That is, he feels the resistance of the body.

All this comes for lack of faith in the greatness of the Creator, and how can he approach the Creator with the blemishes he has within him? This is the meaning of what we asked, How did they say that one who has a blemish shall not approach? for it means that he no longer has any choice to be able to approach the Creator. In other words, the verse, “therefore choose life,” was not said about him. Can this be said?

However, in the work, we should say that a “blemish” means a lack, meaning lack of faith in the Creator. Thus, “all that has a blemish will not approach,” meaning cannot approach the Creator. Instead, first he must correct his blemishes, meaning do good deeds with the aim to be rewarded with faith in the Creator, that He watches over the world as The Good Who Does Good.

Now we will explain what we asked why it is implied that “a cup of blessing should be filled with wine,” otherwise it is not regarded as a cup of blessing. And he says, “So a man should be whole.” But what is the connection between the cup and the man, that if the cup must be full, so should man be whole?

The answer is that the cup is the Kli in which wine is placed. A Kli is called “a lack,” and in the lack enters the filling. Wine is called “abundance,” and with respect to the abundance, there is never a lack, since “Nothing is missing in the King’s house,” and as it is written, “I the Lord do not change,” meaning that there is never a deficit in the light. Rather, everything depends on the receiving Kelim [vessels], so they are complete Kelim and not broken ones.

As we learned, there was the matter of the breaking of the vessels, where from the breaking of the vessels emerged the Klipot [shells/peels]. The breaking of the vessels means that just as when a physical vessel breaks, if you place a liquid in the Kli, it all spills out, so it is in spirituality: If the cup, called a Kli, is not full, but the Kli is deficient with the Creator, the abundance exits to the outer ones, namely to the Klipot.

The intimation that the cup must be full means that the cup should be in equivalence of form with the abundance that comes from the Giver. Then the cup can be full and the abundance will not go to the external ones. In order to understand the intimation, they added and said, “so a man should be whole” and there will be no flaw in him. This is when the cup is called “a cup of blessing.”

In other words, man, who is the Kli that should receive the abundance of blessing, should be whole with the Creator. This means that all of man’s concerns should be only about the benefit of the Creator and not about his own benefit. This is called “a complete cup,” implying that man should be complete, and then the cup can be full.

In other words, if the Kli, called “cup,” implying to the receiving individual, the blessing can be full in the Kli, and it does not spill over from the blessing, meaning the Kli, to the outer ones, who are the Klipot. Rather, everything stays in Kedusha, since man has no blemish, for a blemish in spirituality means that there is a mixture of will to receive. If a person has corrected himself from all the flaws, which is the will to receive for himself, what remains is a cup full of the blessing of the Creator and no abundance flows out to the external ones.

Now we will explain what he says, Ilem [mute] with Yod-Hey is the letters Elokim [God], and it is the same number as “cup” [in Gematria]; hence, a cup must be full, for if you invert the [letters of the] word Ilem you will find Maleh [full]. We should understand what this implies to us.

The ARI explains the Lord, God [Elokim] after the name of the Kli that is fit to receive the abundance, called “light.” He says that the order of scrutinies is that the sparks and Kelim must be raised from BYA to Atzilut for Ibur [impregnation] in Ima. At that time, 320 sparks ascend, comprising thirty-two Behinot [discernments], where each Behina [singular of Behinot] comprises ten, thus 320 Behinot.

The breaking occurred because of Malchut of the quality of judgment that was in each Malchut in each of the thirty-two paths. Hence, the first correction was that Abba, called Hochma, sorted and removed the Malchut of each Behina. This is regarded as removing the Malchut in each path, which is called Peh [mouth], which is Malchut, from which the degree is revealed and shines.

This is as he says in The Study of the Ten Sefirot (Part 12, Item 246): “The Ubar [embryo] does not speak at all, for it is Ilem, from Elokim. Hence, it is mute, devoid of speech. This is the meaning of ‘Or who makes him mute.’” And it is written (The Study of the Ten Sefirot, Part 12, Item 221), “Now (at the time of Yenika [nursing]), they will be filled with the letters Yod-Hey and become complete Elokim.”

We should discern between speech and mute in the work. Speech means revealing, when a person already has Yenika in spirituality, and he feels that he is nursing from Kedusha, for nursing on milk indicates Hassadim, for the quality of Hesed [mercy] is bestowal, when a person is rewarded with vessels of bestowal and all his actions are for the sake of the Creator and he has no concerns for his own benefit. This is regarded as the quality of Hesed.

However, before the Yenika there is Ibur, meaning that the upper one corrects him. This can be when a person is like an embryo in its mother’s womb, where the embryo annuls before the mother and has no view of its own, but as our sages said, “An embryo is its mother’s thigh, eats what its mother eats,” and has no authority of its own to ask any questions. Rather, it does not merit a name. This is called “mute,” when he has no mouth to ask questions.

This is so when a person can go with his eyes shut, above reason, and believe in the sages and go all the way. This is called Ibur, when he has no mouth. Ibur means as it is written (The Study of the Ten Sefirot, Part 8, Item 17), “The level of Malchut, which is the most restricted Katnut [smallness/infancy] possible, is called Ibur. It comes from the words Evra [anger] and Dinin [Aramaic: judgments], as it is written, ‘And the Lord was impregnated in me for your sake.’”

We should interpret the meaning of “anger and judgments.” When a person must go with this eyes shut, above reason, the body resists this work. Hence, the fact that a person always has to overcome, this is called “anger, wrath, and trouble,” since it is hard work to always overcome and annul before the upper one, for the upper one to do with him what the upper one wants. This is called Ibur, which is the most restricted Katnut possible.

The correction is as our sages said, “Abba, who is Hochma, gives the white,” meaning he whitens the lower one from its will to receive, so a person begins to feel that the will to receive is waste, as it is written, “Though your sins are as scarlet, they will be as white as snow.” At that time, it is considered that “His mother gives the red,” meaning that Bina is called “light of Hassadim,” which is the light that comes into vessels of bestowal. That is, once a person has come to know that the will to receive is called “waste,” he receives the desire to bestow. All this is considered that the upper one works and the lower one annuls itself without any criticism. This is regarded as having no “mouth,” and this is called “mute,” which means he has no mouth.

Afterward come the states of “birth” and Yenika [nursing]. At that time, he already has a mouth, meaning that he has his own authority and he already knows what he is doing. He already has permission to make his own choices, which is regarded as being on his own. This is regarded as receiving Ruach, which illuminates when he already has his own authority in Kedusha. But in Ibur, he had only Nefesh, from the word Nefisha [rest/stillness], meaning still, which has no independent movement but the upper one moves it in every action.

At that time, he receives a complete name from Elokim, meaning that being in Ibur, Ilem [mute] from Elokim [God], meaning that he did not have his own authority, that he owned the work, but rather everything was attributed to the upper one. When he was born and has his own Yenika in Kedusha, he is a full name of Elokim. This is the intimation that that which was mute from its own perspective, has now become full. That is, he has been rewarded with Yod-Hey from Elokim, which implies a complete name, “cup” in Gematria, which is the number four—Elokim, which is 86—and then the cup is full.

In other words, when a person has corrected himself into the domain of Kedusha, it is called “a complete Kli,” and this is called “a cup of blessing,” meaning that the blessing can already be in it, since the Kli is corrected so that everything that it receives will remain in Kedusha.

By this we understand what it implies that the cup should be filled with wine. It implies to us that the abundance will remain in the Kli and nothing will spill out from there to the outer ones. Rather, everything will be in order to bestow. It follows that when speaking of the Mitzvot, it all pertains to branch and root. This is why a cup of blessing must be full, which implies to spirituality, meaning the order of man’s work to achieve the purpose of creation.