chevron_rightVol. 1
chevron_rightIntroduction of The Book of Zohar
The Rose
The Rose (Mirrors of the Sulam [Ladder)
The Flower Buds
Who Created These
Who Created These of Elijah
Mother Lends Her Clothes to Her Daughter
The Letters of Rav Hamnuna Saba
Hochma [wisdom], on which the World Stands
Lock and Key
BeHibaraam [When They Were Created] – BeAvraham [In Abraham]
The Vision of Rabbi Hiya
You Are in Partnership with Me
The Donkey Driver
Two Points
On the Night of the Bride
Heaven and Earth
Among All the Sages of the Nations of the World, There Are None Like You
Who Is This
Rejoicing in Holidays and Not Giving to the Poor
Torah and Prayer
Rabbi Shimon’s Exit from the Cave
The Commandments of the Torah, the First Commandment
The Second Commandment
The Third Commandment
The Fourth Commandment
The Fifth Commandment
The Sixth Commandment
The Seventh Commandment
The Eighth Commandment
The Ninth Commandment
The Tenth Commandment
The Eleventh Commandment
The Twelfth Commandment
The Thirteenth Commandment
The Fourteenth Commandment
General Explanation for All Fourteen Commandments and How They Divide into the Seven Days of Creation
Explanation of the Division of the Fourteen Commandments into Ten Utterances
chevron_rightVol. 2
chevron_rightBeresheet - 1
He Carved a Carving in the Upper Light
The Brightness of the Firmament
Taamim, Nekudot [points], and Otiot [letters]
And the Land Was Tohu [Chaos] - 1
Let There Be Light
Let There Be a Firmament
Let the Waters Gather
Let the Earth Put Forth Grass
Let there Be Lights - 1
The Two Great Lights - 1
Explaining the Names Matzpatz, Matzpatz
The Two Great Lights - 2
Illuminations of Light and Illuminations of Fire
Three Lights
Moses and Jacob
Let Us Make Man - 1
I, I am He
Let Us Make Man - 2
A Prayer for the Poor
The Sling-Stone
Creates Worlds and Destroys Them
Five Kinds of Mixed Multitude
Moses and Two Messiahs
Pure Marble Stones
A River Comes Out of Eden
And Placed Him in the Garden of Eden
Idolatry, Bloodshed, Incest
And the Lord God Formed Every Beast of the Field
And the Lord God Built the Rib
Moses’ Hevel
Bad Mixtures
The Correction of the Lower World from the Upper World
And the Land Was Unformed [Tohu] and Void [Bohu] - 2
Three Letters Tov [Tet-Vav-Bet]
The Correction of PBP de ZON
The Voice of the Lord Is Upon the Waters
Opposite the Frame
Bet Resheet
The Hidden Light
If My Covenant Is Not Day and Night - 1
The Separating and Connecting Firmament
These Waters Conceived and Begot Darkness
If My Covenant Is Not Day and Night - 2
Let There Be Lights - 2
Let the Waters Swarm
And God Created the Sea Monsters
Let Us Make Man - 3
For He Did Not Shower Rain
And the Lord God Commanded the Man
And the Serpent Was Cunning
And the Lord Set a Token for Cain
Sin Crouches at the Door
Aza and Azael
This Is the Book of the Generations of Adam
My Spirit Shall Not Abide in Man
chevron_rightBeresheet - 2
Seven Palaces in the Garden of Eden
Seven Sections of the Upper and Lower Earth
Seven Sections of the Upper Earth
Seven Halls of the Upper Earth
Preface to the Seven Halls
Seven Halls of AVI of Beria
Let There Be Light - 1
And There Was Evening and There Was Morning
Let There Be Light - 2
Let There Be a Firmament
Let the Earth Put Forth Grass
Lights without Vav
Let the Waters Swarm
Let Us Make Man
And God Saw All that He Had Done
And the Heaven and the Earth Were Completed
And on the Seventh Day God Completed
Which God Has Created to Do
Sukkah [Hut] of Peace
And the Lord God Built the Rib
And the Lord God Formed the Man
Baal and Asherah
Reconciliation and Receiving Permission
One Who Sets Out on the Road
Voice and Speech
The Address of the LORD to My Lord
A Rising Flame
The World Was Divided into Forty-Five Colors and Kinds of Light
And They Heard the Voice of the Lord God Walking in the Garden
And the Children of Israel Were Stripped of Their Ornaments from Mount Horev
And They Sewed Fig Leaves
And He Drove Out the Man
And the Man Knew Eve
If You Do Well
When Cain Killed Abel
This Is the Book of the Generations of Adam
He Created Them Male and Female
And Enoch Walked with God
And the Lord Saw that the Wickedness of Man Was Great in the Earth
And He Was Saddened in His Heart
My Spirit Shall Not Abide
The Fallen Ones Were in the Earth
I Will Blot Out Man
Come, Behold the Works of the Lord, Who Has Wrought Desolations in the Earth
Noah and the Ark
Go See the Works
Good Is a Man Who Is Gracious and Lends
Drink Water from Your Cistern
And the Earth Became Corrupt
Had He Not Sinned, He Would Not Have Begotten Offspring
And God Saw the Earth
The Lord Has Done What He Devised
For After Seven More Days
And Noah Begot Three Sons
The Judgment of Hell
The End of All Flesh
Shrill Your Voice, Poor of Anatot
That Jew
The Offering
I Lifted Up My Hands in Prayer
And I Bring a Flood of Water - 1
I Said, “I Will Not See the Lord”
And I Bring the Flood of Water - 2
And I Will Establish My Covenant
And He Healed the Ruined Altar of the Lord
Come You and All Your Household
The Earth Is the Lord's, and All that Fills It
The Wicked Perish from the World
The Difference between Moses and the Rest of the World
And Noah Went into the Ark
And Lifted Up the Ark
And He Blotted Out the Universe that Was Upon the Face of the Ground
And God Remembered Noah
And Noah Built an Altar
And the Lord Smelled the Sweet Fragrance
And God Blessed Noah
And the Fear of You and the Dread of You
I Have Set My Bow in the Cloud
This Stone, which I Have Set Up as a Pillar
The Sons of Noah Who Came Out of the Ark Were...
These Three Sons of Noah
And Noah Began and Planted a Vineyard
Bat-Sheba and Uriah
He Was a Mighty Hunter before the Lord
And the House, While It Was Being Built
עיר ומגדל
The Gate of the Inner Court
And the Lord said, “Behold, They Are One People”
Lech Lecha
chevron_rightVol. 3
Chayei Sara
chevron_rightVol. 4
chevron_rightVol. 5
Sifra DeTzniuta
Ki Tisa
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Acharei Mot
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Shlach Lecha
chevron_rightVol. 8
Ki Tetze
chevron_rightVol. 9
New Zohar, Bereshit
New Zohar, Noah
New Zohar, Lech Lecha
New Zohar, VaYera
New Zohar, Toldot
New Zohar, VaYetze
New Zohar, VaYeshev
New Zohar, BeShalach
New Zohar, Yitro
New Zohar, Truma
New Zohar, Tzav
chevron_rightVol. 10
New Zohar, Ki Tisa
New Zohar, Acharei
New Zohar, Behar
New Zohar, Naso
New Zohar, Chukat
New Zohar, Balak
New Zohar, Matot
New Zohar, VaEtchanan
New Zohar, Ki Tetze
New Zohar, Ki Tavo
New Zohar, Shir Hashirim
New Zohar, Midrash Ruth
New Zohar, Eicha
chevron_rightVol. 11
Rosh Hashana
Yom Kipurim
chevron_rightVol. 12
אדם הראשון
אהבת חברים
גברים ונשים
גלות וגאולה
השגה רוחנית
טוב ורע
ימות המשיח
יציאת מצרים
יצר הרע ויצר הטוב
ישראל והעמים
מדרגה רוחנית
מחשבת הבריאה
מטרת החיים
ספר הזוהר
עליות וירידות בדרך
עניים ועשירים
ערב רב
צדיקים ורשעים
קו אמצעי
רבי שמעון בר יוחאי (רשב"י)
תורה - לימוד בלילה
תיקון וגמר התיקון
תפיסת המציאות
chevron_rightVol. 13
Tikuney Zohar
Kabbalah Librarychevron_right
Rashbi/Zohar for All/Vol. 3

Miketz (At the End)

Man Puts an End to Darkness

1) “And it came to pass at the end of two full years.” It is written, “Man puts an end to darkness and to the farthest limit he searches out the rock of darkness and shadow of death.” “Puts an end to darkness” is the end of the left that is not included in the right, which is Satan and the angel of death, who wanders in the world and incites people to sin. He roams above and stands before the Creator and slanders and complains about the world. “And to the farthest limit he searches,” since all his deeds are not to benefit, but always to consume and to yield destruction in the world; he takes people’s souls and puts them to death.

2) “The rock of darkness and shadow of death” is a stumbling block, Satan, since it is in this that the wicked fail. And it stands, “A land of thick darkness, as darkness itself.” There is the land of the living, above—the land of Israel, Nukva of ZA—and there is the land below, called “darkness” and “the shadow of death,” which emerges from the dark land, the Nukva of the shell. A rock of darkness and the shadow of death is the end from the side of the darkness, Satan, the waste of gold.

3) See how people should consider the work of the Creator and delve in the Torah day and night, so as to know and to observe His work, for the Torah declares before man every day and says, “Whoever is naive, let him turn in here.”

4) And when a person engages in the Torah and clings to it, he is rewarded with strengthening in the tree of life, ZA. And when a person is strengthened in the tree of life in this world, he strengthens in it for the next world. And when the souls depart this world, the degrees of the next world will be corrected for them.

5) The tree of life divides into several degrees, and they are all one. This is so because there are degrees in the tree of life, one atop the other—branches, leaves, shells, trunk, roots, and it is all the tree. Similarly, one who delves in the Torah is corrected and strengthens in the tree of life, the trunk of the tree.

6) And all the children of Israel are strengthened by the tree of life; they all literally cling to the tree but some cling to its trunk, some to the branches, some to the leaves, and some to the roots. It turns out that they all cling to the tree of life, and all those who engage in the Torah cling to the trunk of the tree. For this reason, one who engages in the Torah clings to the whole tree, for the trunk of the tree contains all of it.

7) “And it came to pass at the end of two full years, that Pharaoh dreamed.” The end is a place where there is no remembering, the end of the left, as it is written, “Only keep me in mind when it goes well with you.” Is this appropriate for Joseph the righteous to say, “Keep me in mind when it goes well with you”? But since Joseph considered his dream, he said, “The dream is certainly one of remembering.” But he was wrong about that, for it was all in the Creator.

The Mochin are completed only with the coming of the middle line. Before that, there is division between the two lines, and each wishes to sustain its dominance and to revoke the other’s luminescence. The right wishes only for illumination of Hassadim and cancels the illumination of Hochma in the left, while the left wishes only for illumination of Hochma and cancels the illumination of Hassadim, until the middle line comes and decides between them; it mingles them in one another, and sustains the illumination of both, each according to its way.

However, there are two kinds of incorporation in it:

1. When the illumination of the left is included in the right, and the right dominates, shining only in Hassadim that are covered from Hochma. This is the degree of ZA, where even though he has Hochma from the left, he does not use it because he delights in mercy.

2. When both are mingled in one another, and both govern in one incorporation. The right shines in illumination of Hochma, called “revealed Hassadim,” and the left shines in illumination of Hassadim. This is the degree of Yesod of ZA, the middle line, which shines from Chazeh of ZA down. This is the degree of Mochin that is governed by Joseph, and it is called, “Mochin of remembrance.”

When Joseph looked into his dream, he said that this is certainly a dream of remembrance. When he saw that the middle line has already been drawn in the upper Mochin. He thought that here there was already the second incorporation, called “Mochin of remembrance,” which are the complete Mochin that reveal Joseph’s dominion. Hence, he spoke with confidence and knowing the future, “Only keep me in mind when it goes well with you,” meaning that the Mochin of remembrance will appear with the coming true of the dream of the chief of butlers, as it is written, “Only keep me in mind,” together with him.

But he was wrong about that, since there was only the first incorporation here, while all the words of the dream were in the Creator, ZA, which is covered Hassadim. The second incorporation, which is Mochin of remembrance—considered Joseph’s dominion—had not occurred yet.

8) Hence, in correspondence to the place where there was forgetfulness, as it is written, “The chief cupbearer did not remember Joseph, but forgot him.” “But forgot him” indicates the place where there is forgetfulness. This is called “end,” of the side of darkness. Also, two years means that the degree of forgetfulness has returned to the degree of remembrance.

This is so because as long as the second incorporation for Mochin of remembrance did not occur, the shell of forgetfulness, called “the end of days,” stands at the left line. It is so because by the force of the second incorporation, the place of forgetfulness returns to being a place of remembrance.

All the words of the dream were in the Creator in the first incorporation. This is why the place of forgetfulness stood before him, for in this place the Mochin of remembrance will later be revealed. “Forgot him” implies a place where there is forgetfulness, for the governance was given to the shell of forgetfulness, and she is called “end,” on the side of darkness, in the left side, which is dark prior to the incorporation.

“At the end of two full years.” What are two years? A complete aggregation of correction is called, “a year.” Bringing the degree of forgetfulness back to the degree of remembrance requires two mingles, which are two years, as it is written afterwards, “Pharaoh dreamed,” meaning Pharaoh’s dream was already considered the second incorporation.

9) “Pharaoh had a dream, and behold, he was standing by the Nile.” This was Joseph’s dream, a dream of remembrance, which reveals Joseph’s domination because every river is the righteous Joseph, for anyone who sees a river in a dream sees peace, which is the degree of Yesod, Joseph, as it is written, “I will extend peace to her like a river.” Thus, a river implies Joseph.

And It Came to Pass at the End

10) When the Creator created the upper world, Bina, He established everything as it should be and elicited upper lights that shine from all sides, which are the three lines, and all are one. He created the heavens above, ZA, and the earth above, the Nukva, so they would all be established as one, Bina and ZON, in favor of the lower ones.

11) It is written, “The king establishes the land by justice.” The King, the Creator, Bina, and “By justice,” is Jacob, ZA, the sustenance of the land. Hence, Vav of HaVaYaH, ZA, is nourished by the first Hey of HaVaYaH, Bina, the bottom Hey of HaVaYaH, Nukva, is nourished by the Vav, ZA, for her sustenance of the land is “By justice,” in ZA, since He “establishes the land by justice” with all its corrections and nurtures it.

12) “The King” is the Creator, and “By justice” is Joseph. “Establishes the land,” as it is written, “And all countries came into Egypt to Joseph.” And since the Creator desired Jacob, He made Joseph ruler over the land.

13) “The king” is Joseph, and “Establishes the land by justice” is Jacob, since as long as Jacob did not come to Egypt, there was no sustenance to the land due to the famine. Since Jacob came to Egypt, the famine was lifted, thanks to him, and the land was sustained.

14) “The king establishes the land by justice.” This is King David, as it is written, “And David administered justice and righteousness for all his people.” He sustained the land during his life, and owing to him, it stands after his passing from the world. “But he who exacts gifts and tribute overthrows it.” This is Rehoboam [Hebrew: Rehavam], and “He who exacts gifts” means a proud man. And Rehoboam was proud, for he said, “My father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.” Hence, his kingdom was torn.

15) Although the punishment has been given over the world, the Creator withholds Himself for the righteous and does not govern the world. Throughout the days of King David, the land had existed for him. After he died, it existed thanks to his merit, as it is written, “For I will defend this city to save it, for My own sake, and for the sake of My servant, David.” Similarly, all through Jacob’s days and all through Joseph’s days, punishments did not rule the world because the famine had stopped because of them and the enslavement in Egypt was delayed.

16) “The king establishes the land by justice” is Joseph. “But he who exacts gifts and tribute overthrows it” is Pharaoh. Because he hardened his heart against the Creator, the land of Egypt was ruined. And previously, the land was sustained through Joseph in that dream that Pharaoh dreamed, as it is written, “And it came to pass at the end of two full years, that Pharaoh dreamed.”

17) “The Lord lives, and blessed be my Rock; and exalted be the God of my salvation.” It writes Elokey [Hebrew: the God of] with a Vav. “Lives” is a righteous, the foundation [Yesod] of the world, Yesod of ZA, called, “He that lives forever,” and “Blessed be my Rock.” It is written, “Blessed be the Lord my Rock,” which is the world, Nukva, which exists through the righteous, Yesod of ZA, who bestows upon her and she persists. Exalted is the upper world, Bina. “The God of”—with Vav—is heaven, ZA, as it is written, “The heavens are the heavens of the Lord.”

This verse clarifies the wholeness of the bestowal of Yesod, called “He that lives forever,” upon the Nukva, called, “world” and “rock.” This happens when two upper degrees, Bina and ZA, unite in Yesod. Bina clothes ZA with her Mochin, they bestow upon Yesod, and he bestows upon the Nukva, from whom all the lower ones receive.

The meaning of the words, “The Lord lives,” and “Blessed be my Rock”: He that lives forever is Yesod—bestowing—and the Rock, the Nukva, is blessed by him, when “Exalted be the God of my salvation,” that is, when ZA, called “The God of” with a Vav, rises with the clothing of Bina in it. This is so because “exalted” implies Bina, since when Yesod receives from these two degrees, it has the ability to bestow upon the Nukva.

18) “Blessed be the Lord, day by day; He bears our burden.” “Blessed be the Lord [ADNY],” the Name is written with Aleph-Dalet-Nun-Yod, implying the Nukva. This verse is the essence of the wisdom. “Day by day” are two years, which are two degrees, Bina and ZA, which are the only ones through which the Nukva is blessed, as it is written, “And it came to pass at the end of two full years that Pharaoh had a dream, and behold, he was standing by the Nile.” This is Joseph, since the Nile is the righteous Joseph.

Here he brings another evidence that the Nukva is blessed from the Yesod only when two higher degrees, Bina and ZA, unite in it. It is written, “Blessed be the Lord,” which is because of the “day by day,” when Bina and ZA, which are two years, unite in her through the Yesod.

And then, God, Nukva, “Bears our burden; our salvation, Selah.” Thus, the writing explains, “And it came to pass at the end of two full years,” after the two years—the two degrees Bina and ZA—were erected, “Pharaoh had a dream, and behold, he was standing by the Nile.” Then the Nile, which is Joseph, was completed and bestowed upon the Nukva, which is seven cows, as it is written, “And lo, from the Nile there came up seven cows,” the Nukva.

19) “And behold, from the Nile seven cows came up, fine-looking and fat; and they grazed in the marsh grass.” All the degrees below are blessed from this river, which is Yesod, since that river, which stretches out of Eden—Bina—waters and nurtures all. And Joseph, Yesod, who receives from Bina through ZA, is a river by which the whole of the land of Egypt is blessed.

20) That river, Yesod, is the seven degrees of the Nukva from her HGT NHYM, which are extended from her and stand at the world of Beria. They are watered and blessed from it. And these are the seven sleek and fat-fleshed cows. “And they grazed in the marsh grass,” meaning in bonding and brotherhood, as there was no separation between them and they were all praiseworthy, for there was no suction from them to the Sitra Achra.

This is so because all those seven degrees are as it is written, the seven young maidens that are suitable to give to her, from the king’s house, which are the seven palaces of Beria, all of which are praiseworthy. And they are also seven sleek cows, all praiseworthy. Conversely, the writing says, “The seven eunuchs who served in the presence of the King.” Not all of those seven are praiseworthy, but there is a part in them for the forces of impurity, which are the seven unsightly cows.

21) The seven sightly cows are the upper degrees of other degrees, and the seven unsightly cows are other degrees, below. The upper ones are from the side of holiness, and the lower ones are from the side of impurity.

22) “And behold, seven ears of grain came up on a single stalk, plump and good.” The first seven ears were good because they are from the right side, of which it says that it is good, and the seven bad ears are below them. The seven good ears are from the side of purity, and the bad ones are from the side of impurity. And all are degrees that stand one atop the other and one opposite the other, and Pharaoh saw them all in his dream.

23) Can it be that that wicked one, Pharaoh, was shown all the degrees? He did not see the degrees themselves, only their semblance, since there are several degrees over degrees, one opposite the other and one atop the other, and Pharaoh saw those degrees that are below.

24) As man is, so he is shown in his dream, and so he sees. And as a soul rises to attain, each according to his degree, as is appropriate for him. Hence, Pharaoh saw as was appropriate for him and not more.

25) “And it came to pass at the end.” It is written, “To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven.” All that the Creator has done below, He set a season and a time for it. He set a time for light and for darkness, and a time for the light of the rest of the nations. Except for Israel, for they now govern the world. And He set a time for darkness, which is the exile of Israel under their rule; the Creator set a time for everything. Hence, “To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose.” What is, “A time for every purpose”? It is time and purpose for every object below; there is a set time and purpose for all the good that is found below.

26) What is time? It is as the verse goes, “It is time for the Lord to work; they have broken Your law.” It is also written, “That he shall not enter at any time into the holy place.” This is the degree appointed over the governance of the world, the Nukva. Hence, “Time,” the Nukva, is appointed over every object under heaven.

“And it came to pass at the end of two years” because of that end of darkness, for He had set a fixed time for light and for darkness, Pharaoh saw in his dream, and from there was the dream known and revealed to him.

His Spirit Was Troubled

27) “And it came to pass in the morning that his spirit was troubled; and he sent and called for all the magicians of Egypt, and all its wise men. And Pharaoh told them his dreams, but there was no one who could interpret them for Pharaoh.” With Pharaoh, it writes Tipa’em [troubled], but with Nebuchadnezzar, it is written, Titpa’em [different spelling of troubled]. With Pharaoh, it is Tipa’em because he knew the dream but did not know the solution. But Nebuchadnezzar saw the dream and saw the solution, and all was forgotten from him. This is why it writes, Titpa’em.

28) “His spirit was troubled,” as it is written, “And the spirit of the Lord began to move him,” meaning the spirit was coming and going, coming and going, and it still did not settle in him properly. This is why it is written, “And the spirit of the Lord began to move him,” for then it was still the beginning of the permeation of the spirit. And here, too, the spirit awakened in him, parted, and awakened once more. And it did not settle in him to understand and to know.

It is written about Nebuchadnezzar, “And his spirit was troubled,” since the awakening of the spirit was twofold: he did not know the dream or the solution, and the spirits were coming and going, as it is written, “from time to time,” one time in this and one time in that, and his mind and spirit were not settled.

29) “And he sent and called for all the sorcerers of Egypt,” the charmers. “And all its wise men” are the knowledgeable in fortunes. And they all observed to know but they could not attain.

30) Even though you show to a person only according to one’s degree, it is not so with kings: They are shown high things, different from what other people are shown. As the king’s degree is higher than all the other people, he is shown a higher degree than all the others, as it is written, “God has shown to Pharaoh what He is about to do.” But the Creator does not show to other people what He does except for prophets or pious [Hassidim], or the sages of the generation.

31) It is written, “He restored me in my office, but he hanged him.” We learn from this that the dream follows the solution. “Restored me in my office” means restored Joseph, “But he hanged him” is Joseph, by the force of that solution that he provided him, which had to happen in this way. And it is written, “And it came to pass, as he interpreted to us, so it was.”

They Quickly Brought Him Out of the Pit

32) “The Lord wants those who fear Him, who yearn for His mercy.” Oh how the Creator desires the righteous, since the righteous make peace above, in AVI, and make peace below, in ZON, and bring the bride to her husband. And for this reason, the Creator desires those who fear Him and do His will.

Through the MAN that they raise to ZON, ZON, too, raise MAN to AVI, and a coupling occurs above, in AVI, and below, in ZON. And they bring the bride, Nukva, to her husband, ZA, for a coupling. For this reason, the Creator, ZA, desires only them, for without them there would be no peace, which is a coupling, neither above in AVI nor below in ZON.

33) Those “who yearn for His mercy” are those who engage in Torah at night and partake with the Shechina. And when the morning comes, they await His mercy.

When a person engages in Torah at night, a thread of mercy is extended upon him during the day, as it is written, “By day the Lord will command His mercy, and at night, His song will be with me.” “By day the Lord will command His mercy,” because “at night, His song will be with me.”

This is why it is written, “The Lord wants those who fear Him,” and it does not say, “In those who fear Him,” for He does not desire them themselves, but it is as though He is turning His will to another and wishes to make peace with him. “Wishes” comes from the words “appeasing” and “reconciling” [in Hebrew], which is why it is written, “The Lord favors those who fear Him,” meaning that He appeases and reconciles them. It is not written, “In those who fear Him,” which would mean that He desires them themselves, and it would also not mean that He is appeasing and reconciling them.

34) “Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, and they quickly brought him out of the pit.” “Joseph was sad,” sad in spirit and sad at heart, since he was imprisoned there. Since Pharaoh sent after him, it is written, “And they quickly brought him,” meaning that he appeased him and replied to him with words of joy, words that delight the heart, since he was saddened by his being in the pit. First, he fell in the pit, but from the pit he later rose to greatness.

35) Before that event happened to Joseph, he was not considered righteous. Because he kept the holy covenant, for he did not fail with Potiphar’s wife, he was considered righteous, and that same degree of holy covenant, Yesod, was crowned with him. And what was initially in the pit with him—a shell—rose with him, for by this deed he was awarded being called, “righteous.”

Hence, why was he put in the prison? It is because he was first in the pit, by which he rose to kingship. It is also written, “And they quickly brought him out of the pit,” meaning he departed the shell and was crowned with a well of living water, which is the Shechina.

36) “Then Pharaoh sent and called for Joseph.” Should it not have said, “Called Joseph”? However, “Called for Joseph” is the Creator, who called him out of the pit, as it is written, “Until the time that his word came to pass,” meaning the Creator called him. “And he shaved, changed his clothes,” in honor of the king, since he had to stand before Pharaoh.

37) “Israel also came into Egypt; and Jacob lived in the land of Ham.” The Creator makes incarnations in the world and keeps vows and oaths, to keep the oath and the sentence He had sentenced.

38) Had it not been for the fondness and love that the Creator had for the patriarchs, Jacob would have been brought down to Egypt in iron chains. But with His love for them, He enthroned His son, Joseph, and made him king over all the land. Then, all the tribes descended in their honor and Jacob became as king.

39) “Israel also came into Egypt; and Jacob lived in the land of Ham.” Since it is written, “Israel also came into Egypt,” is it not known that “Jacob lived in the land of Ham.” However, “Israel also came into Egypt” is the Creator, ZA, called, “Israel.” “And Jacob lived in the land of Ham” is Jacob, since it was thanks to Jacob’s and his sons’ merit that the Shechina came to Egypt. And the Creator made incarnations and brought Joseph down first, for by his merit, the covenant with him was kept, and He made him governor of all the land.

40) It is written, “The Lord sets the prisoners free,” and it is written, “The king sent and released him, a ruler of peoples, and he will open him.” “The king sent” is the Creator. “Ruler of peoples” is the Creator. “The king sent” is the upper king, ZA. “Sent and released him,” sent the redeeming angel, the Nukva, who is the ruler of peoples, who rules below in the lower world. And it is all from the Creator.

41) “And they quickly brought him out,” lacking the Vav [in Hebrew], which indicates singular tense. It should have said “hastily” [with a Vav in Hebrew], meaning plural tense. And who is it who brought him out hastily out of the pit? It is the Creator, since there is no one to imprison and to release from prison except the Creator, as it is written, “He shuts a man in, and none can open.” It is also written, “When He keeps quietness, who can condemn?” for it is all up to Him. It is written, “And He does according to His will in the army of heaven.” Hence, “And they brought him hastily out of the pit,” meaning that the Creator brought him hastily out of the pit.

42) What does it mean, “And they quickly brought him”? It is as it is written, “Then he will pray to God, and He will accept him,” which means appeasing. Similarly, “and they quickly brought him out of the pit” means that the Creator responded1 to him, and then, “And came in unto Pharaoh.”

“And they quickly brought him” comes from the [Hebrew] words Ratzon [desire] and Hen [grace], meaning it extended upon him a thread of grace, to give him grace before Pharaoh. To greet him and to begin his words with the word, “peace,” he told him, “God will but give Pharaoh a sound answer.”

43) That wicked one, Pharaoh, said, “I do not know the Lord.” But he was wiser than all his magicians; how then did he not know the Lord? He certainly knew the name Elokim, since Pharaoh said, “Can we find such a man in whom there is the spirit of God?” And because Moses came to him only with the name HaVaYaH and not with the name Elokim, it was harder for him to understand this than anything, for he knew that the name Elokim was the ruler of the earth but he did not know the name HaVaYaH. This is why this name was abstruse to him.

44) It is written, “And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh.” This word, HaVaYaH [Lord] was toughening Pharaoh’s heart and hardening it. This is why Moses did not tell him a word from a different name, but only the name HaVaYaH.

45) It is written, “Who is like the Lord our God, who is enthroned on high” means that He rose above His throne and did not appear below, since when there are no righteous in the world, He is removed from them and does not appear to them.

And it is written, “That looks down low” means that when there are righteous in the world, the Creator comes down in His degrees to the lower ones, to watch over the world and to do good to them.

46) When there are no righteous in the world, He departs and hides His face from them and does not watch over them because the righteous are the foundation and the sustenance of the world, as it is written, “The righteous is the foundation of the world.”

47) Hence, the Creator revealed His holy name only to Israel, who are the lot of His share and domain. And the Creator divided the world to strong appointees, into seventy ministers, as it is written, “When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the sons of Adam, He set the boundaries of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel.” It is also written, “For the portion of the Lord is His people, Jacob the lot of His inheritance.”

48) Why did Solomon say that all his words were concealed and unknown. And Ecclesiastes concealed the matters and his words are concealed.

49) Solomon said, “All things are wearisome, no man can tell it, the eye is not satisfied with seeing, nor the ear filled with hearing.” But are all the words weary of telling? After all, there are light words, too. Moreover, Solomon says, “No man can tell it, the eye is not satisfied with seeing, nor the ear filled with hearing.” Why does he regard specifically those?

It is because two of them, eyes and ears, are not in man’s authority, while the mouth is. Hence, they contain all of man’s powers. And he tells us that all of those three and their likes cannot complement everything and obtain everything, that they cannot attain all the things. This also answers the question, are all things are wearisome? which means that the eye and the ear and the mouth cannot attain all the things.

50) Man’s speech cannot speak, nor the eyes see, nor the ears hear, “And there is nothing new under the sun.” One must not think that they will ever be changed by this restriction. Hence, he says, “That which has been is that which shall be, and that which has been done is that which shall be done, and there is nothing new under the sun.” Even demons and ghosts that the Creator has made under the sun cannot tell all the things in the world, and the eye cannot govern and see, nor the ear to hear. Hence, Solomon, who knew all things, said that.

51) All the deeds in the world depend on a few appointees, for you do not have a blade of grass below that does not have an appointee above, which strikes and tells it, “Grow.” And all the people in the world do not know and do not watch over their root—the reason why they are in the world. Even King Solomon, who was the wisest of all men, could not perceive them.

52) Happy are those who engage in Torah and know how to observe the spirit of wisdom. It is written, “He has made every thing beautiful in its time,” meaning in all the deeds that the Creator has done in the world, there is a degree that is appointed over that deed in the world, both for better and for worse, and these are the twenty-eight times that Ecclesiastes calculates. Fourteen times for the better are on the right. This is the Shechina. And fourteen times for the worse are on the left. These are in the Sitra Achra, to punish people.

Some of them are degrees to the right and some of them are degrees to the left. When a man walks to the right, that deed he has done—the degree that is appointed to the right side—gives him help, and he has many who help him. When a man walks to the left and does his deeds, the appointee that is on the left side slanders against that deed that he has done, leads him to that side, and fools him.

Hence, with a proper deed that a man does, the right hand side appointee helps him. This is “In its time,” as it is written, “Beautiful in its time.” This is so because that deed has been connected in its time, properly, in the Nukva, called “time”—meaning the fourteen times for the better—which are on the right. And through the punishments in the fourteen times for the worse, he chooses the fourteen times on the right and connects to the Shechina. It turns out that he did everything beautiful in its time.

53) “He has made everything beautiful in its time, He has also set the world in their hearts.” The whole world and all the deeds in the world are connected to holiness only by the desire of the heart, when it comes into man’s will. It is written, “Know this day, and lay it to thy heart.” Happy are the righteous who draw good deeds by the will of their hearts, to do good to themselves and to the entire world. They know how to adhere at a time of peace, when there is a coupling of the upper one, called “peace.” Also, by the power of righteousness they do below, they raise MAN and draw it into that degree called, “everything,” which is Yesod, to shine in its time, in the Nukva.

54) Woe unto the wicked who do not know the time of peace of the action, and do not see that they do their deeds in the world for the correction that is needed in the world, and to correct the deed in its appropriate degree. Also, they do not raise MAN through their deeds for the upper coupling, which is a time of peace.

55) Hence, everything is given to people’s will, as it is written, “So that man will not find out the work which God has done from the beginning even to the end.” And because these deeds were not done so as to be corrected in their degree—as they should have—for this deed to be included in its corresponding degree, it is all in correction. Instead, they were done according to man’s will, by his arbitrary heart. Afterwards, it is written, “I know that there is nothing good about them but to rejoice and to get pleasure so long as they live.”

“I know that there is nothing good about them,” about those deeds that were not done with the proper intention for correction. But to rejoice with everything that comes upon him, both good and bad, and to give thanks to the Creator, “And to do good in his life.”

Why should one rejoice with the bad? If the deed he has done harmed him because of the degree that was appointed over it from the left, he should be happy and thankful for this bad that has come to him, for he caused that himself, since he went without knowledge, like a trapped bird. And now, since he has obtained knowledge through the punishment, he will know how to do good in his life. Hence, he should be happy and thankful for the punishment.

56) How do we know that one has no knowledge? It is written, “Moreover, man does not know his time: like fish caught in a treacherous net and birds trapped in a snare, so the sons of men are ensnared at an evil time when it suddenly falls upon them.” What is “his time”? It is the time of the deed that he had done, as it is written, “He has made every thing beautiful in its time.” Hence, they are as birds trapped in a snare.” And for this reason, happy are those who engage in Torah, who know the ways and trails of the law of the High King, to walk in it on the path of truth.

It is written, “He has made everything beautiful in its time,” that all twenty-eight times that Ecclesiastes calculates there are all good, each in its time. This is so because even the fourteen times on the left are good, since they bring one closer to connecting to the fourteen times on the right, which is the Shechina.

“He has also set the world in their heart,” where by the harsh punishments in the fourteen times on the left, the sweet fourteen times on the right are set in their hearts. Because of the bitter punishment that he suffers on the left, he escapes from the left and comes to the right.

And he needed this advice, since, as it is written, “Man will not find out the work that the God has made from beginning to end,” for man cannot obtain everything, as Solomon says, “All things are wearisome, no man can tell it.” This is why he was given the scrutiny in the heart, which runs from the bitter punishment and ties to the good and mercy on the right, as it is written, “I know that there is nothing good for them,” in the fourteen times on the left. Still, they are a sure reason “to rejoice and to get pleasure so long as they live.”

57) One should never open one’s mouth for evil, for he does not know who receives the matter. And when a person does not know, he fails in it. And when the righteous open their mouths, it is all peace. Hence, when Joseph began to speak to Pharaoh, it is written, “God will give Pharaoh an answer of peace.” The Creator had mercy on Malchut, as it is written, “And gave them a charge unto the children of Israel, and unto Pharaoh, king of Egypt.”

After God Has Informed You of All This

58) Pharaoh wished to try Joseph; he misplaced the words of the dream and since Joseph knew the degrees that were implied in his dream, he looked at each thing and said, “Thus you saw,” and arranged every thing in its proper place.

59) “And Pharaoh said to Joseph, ‘Since God has informed you all of this,” meaning after you were, while I was dreaming the dream, you were there. This is why he said all that. You knew how the dream was and you knew its solution.

60) In that case, Joseph said everything—the dream and the solution—like Daniel, who said the dream and its solution. But this is not so. Joseph looked from within Pharaoh’s words, who was saying the words of the dream in certain degrees, and he saw that he was wrong, since his words were not in the order applied in those degrees of the dream. And he told him, you did not see this but that, for the degrees come in their proper order. But Daniel did not observe at all from within the words of Nebuchadnezzar; he told him everything—the dream and its solution.

61) “Then the secret was revealed to Daniel in the vision of the night.” The vision of the night is Gabriel, who is a sight from a mirror.

The Nukva is called, “night,” and she is a mirror, which means illumination of Hochma. And since there is no illumination of Hochma in any Partzuf besides her, the Nukva is called, “mirror.” Accordingly, the name “night” is a mirror, and the vision of the night is a sight from the mirror, Angel Gabriel, whose discernment of sight in him is extended from the mirror, which is the Nukva.

62) “And the vision I saw was just as the vision that I had seen when he came to destroy the city, and just as the vision that I had seen by the Chebar river. And I fell on my face.” All these visions in this verse are six degrees. “And the vision I saw was just as the vision” are two, and “visions” in plural form is also two, which makes four, and “Like the vision that I saw” is two, which makes six visions—six Sefirot HGT NHY of the Nukva.

Gabriel has a mirror. In it, the colors above—the six visions in the Nukva—are seen. And they are seen in this vision, which is Gabriel, who is called “a vision from a mirror.” And there is a vision for a mirror and a vision for a vision, one atop the other. This means that in the vision for a mirror, which is Gabriel, there are many degrees, each of which is considered a vision from a vision, meaning a vision from the upper mirror, the Nukva. There are six discernments of vision from a vision one atop the other, extended from the six visions in the Nukva. All of them are in the degrees HGT NHY. They govern, and they are called “the vision of the night,” and all the dreams in the world are resolved in them. They are like that which is above them, like the six visions in the Nukva.

63) This is why it is written, “The secret was revealed to Daniel in the vision of the night,” since one of these degrees of the vision of the night revealed to him the dream and its solution. But through Pharaoh’s words, Joseph looked at the high degrees that the dream was pointing to and said its solution to Pharaoh.

64) “And he set him over all the land of Egypt,” since the Creator—of His—gave him of Joseph’s: The lips that did not touch a transgression, as it is written, “And according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled,” the hand that did not come near a transgression, as it is written, “And put it upon Joseph's hand,” a neck that did not come near a transgression, as it is written, “And put a gold chain about his neck,” the body that did not come near a transgression, as it is written, “And clothed him in garments of fine linen,” a foot that did not ride on a transgression, as it is written, “He had him ride in his second chariot,” the thought, for he did not think of transgression, and he is called, “wise and understanding,” the heart that did not contemplate a transgression, as it is written, “And they proclaimed before him, ‘Bow the knee!’” And he received everything from his own.

65) “And Joseph went out from before Pharaoh and went throughout all the land of Egypt.” What is the reason that he “went throughout all the land of Egypt”? To rule over them, for they were declaring before him, “And they proclaimed before him, ‘Bow the knee!’” Moreover, it was to collect grain in every place, as it is written, “He placed in every city the food from its own surrounding fields,” and did not place the grain of this place in another place, so it would not rot. This is because it is the nature of every place to preserve the fruits that grow in it.

66) All that the Creator had done is to cause evolution, meaning to develop and provide good causes for Israel because He wanted to keep His promise. When the Creator created the world, he first brought everything that the world needed, and then brought man into the world and found nourishments for him.

67) The Creator said to Abraham, “Know for certain that your descendants will be strangers in a land that is not theirs … and afterward they will come out with great possessions.” When Joseph came to Egypt, there weren’t many possessions in it. The Creator caused development and brought famine upon the world, and the whole world brought silver and gold to Egypt. Thus, the whole of the land of Egypt was filled with silver and gold. And after the possessions were established in the full measure, He brought Jacob to Egypt.

68) Such are the ways of the Creator: First, He chooses the remedy, then He strikes. First, He established the great possessions in Egypt, then He brought them into exile. This is why He caused development and brought hunger upon the whole world, so they would bring the silver and gold of the whole world into Egypt.

69) Thanks to Joseph, who was righteous, it caused Israel to receive wealth, silver and gold, as it is written, “And He brought them out with silver and gold.” This came to Israel by the hand of the righteous, all in order to reward them with the next world.

70) It is written, “Enjoy life with the woman you love, all the days of your vain life that He has given you under the sun.” This verse is a sublime secret. “Enjoy life” is life of the next world, for happy is the man who is rewarded with it, as it should be.

71) “With the woman you love” is the assembly of Israel, the Nukva, since it is about her that love is written, as it is written, “I have loved you an everlasting love.” When? When the right side clings to her, as it is written, “Therefore with mercy have I drawn you,” and mercy [Hesed] is the right side.

72) “All the days of your vain life.” Because the Nukva in Gadlut is called, “the assembly of Israel,” she is tied to life, to Bina, a world where there is life. This is so because this world, which is Nukva, has no life in and of itself. Hence, it is called “a life of vanity,” since it is under the sun, ZA, and must receive from it.

The lights of the sun do not reach here in this world and have departed from the world on the day the Temple was ruined, as it is written, “The sun will be dark when it rises,” for its light rises up and does not shine below, as it is written, “The righteous, Yesod of ZA that gives to this world, which is Nukva, is lost.” Hence, she should be extended life from Bina, as it is written, “Enjoy life.”

73) “For that is your portion in life.” This is the coupling of the sun, ZA, with the moon, Nukva, since the Nukva is called “portion,” and the light of the sun, “life.” And the sun must come into the moon, and the moon into the sun, so they are not separated. This is man’s share: to cause the upper coupling by his deeds, to achieve the next world through them.

74) Afterwards, it is written, “Whatever your hand finds to do with your strength, do it, for there is no work or calculation or knowledge or wisdom in the grave where you are going.” Has the ban been lifted and is there no longer fear of the punishing whip, that man can do all that he can? It is written, “to do with your strength.” “Your strength” is man’s soul. This is man’s strength, by which to be rewarded with this world and with the next world. Whatever your hand finds to do with the strength of your soul, to do good deeds, “Do it,” and do not be lazy, for then you will be rewarded with both worlds.

75) Also, “with your strength” is the woman, the assembly of Israel, which is the power to overcome in her, in this world and in the next world. And man should be rewarded with this strength in this world, so as to strengthen in her in the next world, and it is written, “Whatever your hand finds to do with your strength,” the Nukva, to do good deeds in this world. “Do it,” and you will be rewarded with the next world.

76) One must enhance good deeds in this world because once a person departs this world, he has no strength to do anything, to say, “From here on I will do good deeds,” “for there is no work or calculation or knowledge or wisdom in the grave where you are going.”

And if one is not rewarded in this world, he will not be rewarded later, in the next world. And one who did not prepare provisions for the journey out of this world will not eat in the next world. There are good deeds that a person does in this world, from which he eats here in this world, but the rest remains for the next world, to be nourished by them.

77) Joseph was rewarded in this world and rewarded in the next world because he wanted to unite with a God-fearing woman, which is the Nukva—this world—as it is written, “and sin against God,” which is the Nukva, called “God.” And for this reason, he was rewarded with ruling in this world, and he credited Israel.

78) “And Joseph gathered all the money.” That river, which stretches out of Eden, Yesod, is called Joseph, and it gathers everything, for it includes and receives all the Sefirot, and all the wealth is in it, as it is written, “And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to shine on the earth,” since Yesod is called, “firmament,” which shines to the earth, the Nukva. And all is as it should be, since it is certain that Joseph, Yesod, had to govern Malchut, the Nukva, and bestow upon her.

79) “He had him ride in his second chariot.” What is the second chariot? The Creator made the righteous governor, since the world—which is Nukva—is nourished by him, and from him it should be nourished. The Creator has an upper chariot, HGTM from Chazeh of ZA upwards, and He has a lower chariot—Nukva. The lower chariot is called the “second chariot,” and Joseph is called “righteous,” Yesod, and he is worthy of riding the second chariot.

80) “And they proclaimed before him, ‘Bow the knee!’ and he set him over all the land of Egypt.” “Bow the knee” is the connection by which the sun is tied to the moon, Yesod, which unites ZON. And all kneel opposite this place, since the intention of kneeling in a prayer is in the Yesod, called Baruch [blessed, as well as Berech—knee]. And they called before him, “Bow the knee” after the kneeling. This comes from the words, “He made the camels kneel down.” And he is placed over the whole world, which is the Nukva, and all the people in the world thank him for the abundance he imparts over them. Hence, all is by the counsel of the Upper One.

81) The Creator made the kingdom of earth such as the kingdom of heaven. He had made everything one opposite the other, so all that there is on earth has its corresponding root in the firmament. Also, all that is done on earth was initially before the Creator, above in the firmament. The sacred Malchut did not receive a complete Malchut until she connected to the patriarchs because the Creator made the upper Malchut shine from the patriarchs.

82) And when the righteous Joseph first descended to Egypt, he later drew the Shechina with him, since the Shechina follows only the righteous. Hence, Joseph was first drawn into Egypt, received all the wealth in the world, as it should be, and then the Shechina came down to Egypt and all the tribes with her.

83) For this reason, Joseph, who kept the holy covenant, was rewarded with being crowned in his place, became a chariot for Yesod of ZA, and was rewarded with the Malchut [also kingdom] above and the Malchut below. Hence, anyone who keeps the holy covenant is as though one keeps the whole of the holy Torah, since the covenant is tantamount to the whole of the Torah.

Now Jacob Saw that There Was Grain in Egypt

84) “Now Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt.” Since the Shechina departed from him with the selling of Joseph, how did he see that there was grain in Egypt? It is written, “The burden of the word of the Lord concerning Israel, Thus says the Lord, who stretches out the heavens, lays the foundation of the earth, and forms the spirit of man within him.” “The burden of the word of the Lord,” why does he say, “burden”? Wherever there is judgment over the rest of the nations and he says, “burden,” it is for the better. Wherever it says, “burden” about Israel, it is bad.

85) Wherever it is judgment over the rest of the nations, it is for the better. This is so because a burden means a load, that the well being of the idol-worshipping nations is a burden on the Creator, and when they are sentenced, He removes that burden of suffering for them from Himself. This is why it is said that when it says burden concerning them, it is for the better.

Wherever the judgment is placed on Israel, and it says, “burden,” it is seemingly a burden on the Creator to punish Israel. This is a burden from both sides, as though He is burdened whether He punishes them or does not punish them. If He does not punish them, they will remain in the filth of the sin. And if He does punish them, He is seemingly suffering for the affliction of Israel. This is why it is bad when it writes, “burden,” concerning them.

86) Since he said, “Who stretched out the heavens and laid the foundations of the earth,” why did he also need to say, “And formed the spirit of man”? Had it not been said, would we not know that He creates the spirit of man? Rather, this indicates the degree where all the spirits and souls in the world stand—the Nukva—in which all the spirits and souls stand in the Ibur [conception], and from which the lower ones receive.

87) It would have been good if he had said only, “And formed the spirit of man.” But what is the meaning of, “Within him”? Indeed, it is in two sides—Yesod and Nukva. This is so because all the souls come out of that river which stretches out of Eden, Yesod, from which all the souls emerge and depart, and gather into one place—the Nukva, and Yesod creates the spirit of man within him, which is the Nukva, who is similar to a woman who has conceived from the male, and the fetus is narrowing her intestines until it is entirely formed, in its full depiction, in her intestines.

Thus, “And formed the spirit of man within him.” “Within him,” in the Nukva, where the spirit stands and is depicted, until man is created in the world and she gives him the spirit. The word, “form,” comes from forming, where it forms the spirit of man in her. And since before the completion of its formation, the fetus is pressing in its mother, he writes “burden” here, which in Israel is bad.

88) “And formed the spirit of man within him,” meaning actually within a person and not in the upper Nukva, since when man was created and the Creator gave him his soul and he came out to the world, that spirit within him does not find sufficient space in which to spread. Hence, it stands within him on one side, right, and does not spread to the right and to the left.

89) And when man’s body spreads, the spirit spreads, as well, and puts strength within it. Also, to the extent that the body grows, the spirit gives man strength by which to strengthen. Hence, it literally forms “the spirit of man within him.”

90) What is the meaning of “Forms the spirit of man”? After all, the spirit must be assisted by additional strength from above. Hence, the Creator “forms the spirit of man within him” by helping it, so it can spread within man.

91) When that spirit needs assistance, according to that man and according to the extent to which that body is corrected, that spirit is corrected for him above and he is given additional spirit to be corrected. This is because one is assisted to the extent that he comes to be purified. This is the meaning of, “And formed the spirit of man within him,” that he gives him additional spirit that can spread in man’s body.

When a man is born and comes out to the world, the Ruach [spirit] cannot spread in him and stands on one side, for it is not included in the left. Hence, it is deficient of GAR. And when one grows and betters his actions, he is given additional Ruach, GAR, since VAK are considered the heart of the Ruach, and the GAR as additional Ruach, and then it spreads to all sides of man’s body.

92) Since Joseph had been lost to his father Jacob, Jacob lost the additional Ruach that was in him, the GAR, and the Shechina parted him. Afterwards, it is written, “The spirit of Jacob their father revived.” But was he dead until now? Rather, this additional Ruach departed him and was not within him because the sadness within him caused his Ruach [spirit] to not exist, since the GAR, which are the existence of the Ruach, had parted from him. This is why it is written, “The spirit of Jacob their father revived,” for the GAR were revived.

93) Here it writes, “Now Jacob saw that there was corn in Egypt,” meaning he saw with the holy spirit. After all, until now he was not told that Joseph was alive, and in addition, he was in a state of departure of the Shechina. Thus, how did he know that there was grain in Egypt? Indeed, “And Jacob saw,” meaning that he saw that all the dwellers of the land were going to Egypt and bringing back grain. He did not see with the holy spirit.

96) It is written, “Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her pats are peace.” These are the ways of Torah, for the Creator instills the pleasantness of the Shechina upon one who walks in the path of Torah, so as to never be lifted from him. “And all her paths are peace.” All the paths of the Torah are peace—peace above and peace below, peace in this world and peace in the next world.

97) This verse is like a coin in the pocket: a precious secret is hidden here in the interior of the verse. This verse is in two manners—ways and paths—and in two discernments—pleasantness and peace. We read “ways” in it, and we read “paths” in it. We read “pleasantness” in it, and we read “peace” in it.

98) “Her ways are ways of pleasantness,” as it is written, “Who makes a way in the sea,” for wherever it writes, “way” in the Torah, it is an open way for all, like a corporeal way that is open to every person. Such are her ways, ways of pleasantness. They are ways that are open from the Patriarchs, HGT, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who have paved through the great sea and came within it. And the lights open from these ways, to shine to every side and to every direction in the world.

The two Malchuts by which the screen is corrected to make a coupling with the upper light are called “key” and “lock,” or Ateret Yesod [the crown of Yesod] and Malchut herself. And there is illumination of Hochma only where there is the key. However, places where there is the lock remain in Hassadim that are covered from Hochma. In the GAR of Partzufim such as Atik, upper AVI, and the great ZON, the lock is active; hence, they are in covered Hassadim. And in the VAK of Partzufim such as AA, YESHSUT, and the small ZON, the key is active; hence, illumination of Hochma appears through them.

The key is called “a way” or “a path” because it is a way for imparting Mochin of Hochma, which shine GAR to all sides. The lock is called “a trail” or “a lane,” a narrow road that is not open to all, since only the souls from Chazeh of ZON and above can receive GAR from them, for they do not need Hochma because they delight in mercy. But the souls from Chazeh of ZON down—which require Hochma—can receive only VAK from there without Rosh.

It follows that it is not open to the souls that are from the Chazeh down, which are the majority of the souls. Hence, it is only called “way” and “path,” which is open only to some. In upper AVI, the lock—called “path”—is operative. Thus, they are always in Hassadim that are covered from Hochma. And in YESHSUT, the key, called “way,” is active, hence they are in illumination of Hochma.

Therefore, it is said that wherever it is written “way” in the Torah, it is a road that is open to all, since a way indicates the Malchut of the key, on whose coupling appears the illumination of Hochma. This illumination completes all the souls, even those that are drawn from Chazeh of ZON down, which are the majority of souls in the world.

It is said that they are ways that are open since the patriarchs, HGT, Abraham-Isaac-Jacob, who carved in the great sea and came within it. This is so because after ZA receives the three lines of YESHSUT—in what was said, “Three emerge from one, one is rewarded with all three—it imparts them to the Nukva and she becomes a fourth to the patriarchs—the kingdom of David.

And when it gives her the point of Holam from the right line of Bina, the letters ELEH of Bina—in whom there is the key—are extended to her. Then it is considered that HGT of ZA carved in her and made a receptacle in her, which is the key, as was said, “The mother who lends her clothes to her daughter,” as it is written, “The well, which the princes dug,” which is YESHSUT, “Which the nobles of the people delved,” meaning HGT of ZA.

HGT of ZA impart to the Nukva the vessel of the key from Bina and then give to her, as well, the two points Shuruk and Hirik from the two lines, left and middle of Bina. Then, she too has all three lines in HGT of ZA, which they received from the three lines in Bina, and then the three lines of ZA, HGT, enter the Nukva.

From the key, called “way” or “path,” illumination of Hochma that shines and complements all sides and all spirits of the world is dispensed, even to the ones that are extended from the Chazeh of ZON downwards. But the paths, which are the lock, give only to few—the ones that are extended from the Chazeh of ZA upwards—and are not open to all.

99) This pleasantness is pleasantness that stems from the next world, YESHSUT. From the next world, all the lights divide and shine to each side—the three lines. And that good, and the light of the next world—which the patriarchs (HGT of ZA) inherit, who inherit these Mochin from YESHSUT, from the next world—is called “pleasantness.”

Also, the next world itself, YESHSUT, is called “pleasantness,” since when the next world awakens to illuminate, every joy and every goodness, all the lights and all the freedom in the world awaken, which is why it is called “pleasantness.”

100) Therefore, when the Sabbath starts, all the wicked in hell rest and they have freedom and rest. And when the Sabbath ends, we should evoke the upper joy upon ourselves, to be saved from the punishment of the wicked that are sentenced from that time forth. And we should awaken and say, “Let the pleasantness of the Lord our God be upon us.” This is the higher pleasantness, the joy of all, the Mochin of YESHSUT, as it is written, “Her ways are ways of pleasantness.”

On the Sabbath, the Mochin of the upper AVI—which are pure air—shine. And they are called, “in the future.” At that time, all the judgments are removed from the world and even the wicked in hell rest. And when the Sabbath ends, the judgments and the shells reawaken and are revoked only by Mochin of illumination of Hochma, which are extended from YESHSUT, which are called “pleasantness.” Hence, at the end of the Sabbath we must say the verse, “And let the pleasantness,” to evoke upon us the Mochin of illumination of Hochma, which cancel all the judgments.

101) “And all her paths are peace.” Her paths are the trails that emerge from above, from AVI, the lock that serves in AVI, of which it is written, “And Your path in the great waters.” They are called so because they are not open to every person but only to a few. And all are held by the covenant alone, meaning Yesod, who is called, “peace”—peace at home—and he brings them into the great sea, when he is in power, and then he gives him peace, as it is written, “And all her paths are peace.” Joseph was the covenant of peace, he was rewarded with those paths, and he was a king in Egypt and the ruler of the land. But Jacob did not know, since the Shechina departed him.

The key, which is a screen that is extended from Bina, called “way,” draws the Mochin of pleasantness, as it is written, “Her ways are ways of pleasantness.” But the lock does not draw the Mochin, and all its correction is to make peace. This is so because the whole strength of the middle line is to unite the two lines, right and left, in one another, by first being included in that screen of the lock.

And all of them, meaning the two screens together—the path and the way—are held only by the covenant, which is Yesod of Gadlut, called “Joseph.” This means that although the middle line is essentially Tifferet, it does not carry the two screens together, since being above Chazeh of ZA, the judgments of the lock are not apparent in it, since they are discerned as judgment only from the Chazeh down. Hence, only Yesod, which is from the Chazeh down, holds the two of them together.

The Yesod admits them into the great sea when it is in its Gevura [also “might”], for then it gives it peace. When the Nukva is in Gevurot, the left dominates and does not wish to mingle with the right, for then all the lights within it freeze. This is when the Yesod gives peace, where through the screen of the lock—the screen of Hirik—it subdues the left and connects it with the right. Then, peace is made between the right and the left, and the lights open, as it is written, “And all her paths are peace.” This is so because the paths, which are the lock, are not poised to draw the Mochin, like the key, which is called “way,” but to make peace, which stands between the right line and the left line.

102) Yet, Jacob had to break to buy grain in Egypt. Moreover, he saw that it was “Disaster on disaster,” for his sons went down to Egypt. Hence, “Jacob said to his sons, ‘Why do you fear?’” Instead, show yourselves as people who have no satiation.

Even though the Shechina had departed Jacob, he still had the shattering, which is the opening screen with respect to the judgments in it, to buy grain in Egypt, to draw upon it illumination of Hochma of YESHSUT, called “wisdom of Egypt.” But the screen of the lock was not recognized by him as judgment, since it was Tifferet, which is from the Chazeh upwards. But the lock will also be apparent in his sons, who are discerned as being from the Chazeh down, should they go down to Egypt.

This is what it means that he saw “Disaster on disaster,” that his sons had descended to Egypt, since the second shattering would appear in them, too, meaning the screen of the lock. Hence, He “said to his sons, ‘Why do you fear?’” Instead, show yourselves as hungry, by the force of the opening screen, which is hungry for Mochin, as people who have no satiation because of the locking screen that is not fully satiated before the end of correction.

103) Whenever there is sorrow in the world, one must not show oneself on the street, so as to not be caught for one’s sins, for the litigants may see him and complain about him and expose his sins to punish him. This is why Jacob told them, “Why do you fear?”, since they should be afraid of the slanderers.

104) “Now Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt” actually refers to grain [in Hebrew the same word is used for grain and for shattering], and not shattering, as previously interpreted. This is so because the Creator sent hunger in the world to bring Jacob and his sons down there. Hence, he saw that the people of the land were bringing grain from there.

105) “Now Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt.” When Isaac died, Jacob and Esau came to split the patrimony. And Esau came out of his share in the land and in everything, meaning he departed and was rid of the exile, too. And Jacob, who was to suffer the exile, was to take everything, meaning this was their compromise.

This is why Jacob saw that breaking in Egypt, that he and his sons would suffer the exile. Hence, “Jacob said to his sons, ‘Why do you fear’” the judgment above and you do not fear that a slanderer against you will be found? “He said, ‘I heard that there is grain in Egypt, go down there.” In Gematria, Redu [go down] is 210, the number of Israel’s [stay] in Egypt.

And Joseph Was the Governor

106) “And Joseph was the governor over the land.” When the Creator desires a person, he elevates him above all the people in the world and makes him head over all, and all his enemies surrender under him.

107) King David, his brothers hated him and rejected him from among them. The Creator lifted him above all the people in the world. His father-in-law, Saul, came and he fled from him. The Creator lifted him above all the kingdoms, and they all kneeled and bowed before him. And Joseph—his brothers rejected him. Afterwards, they all kneeled and bowed before him, as it is written, “And Joseph's brothers came, and bowed down to him with their faces to the earth.”

108) “And now shall my head be lifted up above my enemies around me, and I will offer sacrifices in His tabernacle with trumpet sound I will sing praises to the Lord.” Now means “you,” the name of the Shechina [in Hebrew “now” and “you” sound the same], for he prayed that the Shechina would raise his head.

Time is a high degree, the letter Hey of HaVaYaH, the Shechina, and it is called, “now.” But “And now,” with a Vav is ZA and its court, the Nukva, since Vav from the “And now” implies ZA.

109) “My head be lifted up,” raising the head in honor and kingship. “Above my enemies around me” are the rest of the kings of the land. “And I will offer sacrifices in His tabernacle” is Jerusalem. “In His tabernacle” with a Vav implies the Tent of Congregation. “With trumpet sound” is to sound it to the whole world. “I will sing praises” because of the trumpet call, since the song and the praise come because of the trumpet call.

110) “And now shall my head be lifted up.” This is the assembly of Israel, the Nukva, which is called, “now.” “Above my enemies around me” is Esau and all his ministers. “And I will offer sacrifices in His tabernacle,” inside Israel, “With trumpet sound,” as it is written, “The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit,” to remove the judgment from the world. “I will sing praises,” to thank and to praise the Creator ceaselessly, forever.

111) “And now shall my head be lifted up.” “My head” is the good inclination, which prayed in every thing, meaning raising the good inclination over the evil inclination. “Above my enemies around me” refers to the evil inclination that surrounds man and hates him in everything. “And I will offer sacrifices in His tabernacle” is the study of Torah, which was given from the side of the fire, as it is written, “At His right hand was a fiery law,” for he raises his head for the Torah and all his enemies will break before him, as it is written, “You have subdued under me those who rose up against me.”

112) “And now shall my head be lifted up,” to be included in the patriarchs, HGT of ZA, since King David must cling to the patriarchs, for he unites with them as a fourth leg, and then he will rise and soar from Chazeh of ZA upwards, in one connection with them. “Over my enemies around me” are the litigants on the left side, who aim to destroy. And when he rises above them, the sun, ZA, bonds with the moon, Nukva, and all becomes one.

113) “And Joseph was the governor over the land; he was the one who sold to all the people of the land.” Joseph is the sun, ZA, since Joseph is Yesod of ZA, which governs the moon (Nukva), shines to her and feeds her. He is the provider of all the people of the land, for all are fed by that river that stretches out of Eden, which is Yesod, called, “Joseph,” and from there the souls fly off to every person. This is why everyone bows before that place, for there is nothing in the world that does not depend on luck, which is Yesod.

And Joseph Knew His Brothers

114) “And Joseph knew his brothers, but they did not know him,” as it is written, “Why should I fear in days of adversity, when the iniquity of my foes surrounds me?” Three are the ones who are afraid and do not know what they fear. But atop these three is he who fears and does not know what he fears, for the sins he had sinned, which he does not know are sins and did not notice them, and he fears the days of evil.

115) “Days of evil” are days that are intended to be in that evil. This is the evil inclination, called, “evil.” It has specific days when it is given permission in the world to deflect all those who foul their way with a layer of vain semen, for one who comes to be defiled is defiled. And those are the ones who are called, “Days of evil,” and they are appointed to be used for punishing for those transgressions that a man tramples with his feet.

116) All those who defile their way, several bundles of damagers are intended for them and defile them. A man is led by the very way he wishes to go. And a man who comes to be purified has several assistants.

117) When a person rises in the morning, he should wash his hands from a Natlah of water, which is a vessel from which to take water [special cup for ritual hand-washing]. He should take from one who has already washed his hands. And we need a Natlah specifically for washing the hands in the morning.

118) Man should wash the right hand with the left hand, so that the left hand will serve the right, to give the right dominance over the left. Thus, the right will be washed by the left. The reason why there is the washing is that it comes to make the right dominant over the left. Hence, one who washes one’s hands will wash the right with the left, to make the right dominant over the left, so as to not give any room for the evil inclination to rule. This is so because the Sitra Achra has no grip on the right line, only on the left line, and if one makes the right dominant over the left, the grip of the Sitra Achra on the left ceases, too.

119) While the evil judgment governs, one does not remove one’s hands from harming and even the righteous are harmed by him, since because the destructor has been given permission, he does not distinguish between good and bad. And when the right governs the idol worshipping people, the Creator has pity on them and He does not obliterate them. Thus, there is a big difference between the mercy of the right and the judgment of the left.

120) For this reason, anyone who sins with those sins where a man tramples with his feet, does not know that he has sinned in them and he is always afraid. King David was always wary of these transgressions. When he went to war, he would scrutinize them to repent for them, which is why he did not fear waging war with them.

121) There were four kings. What one asked, the other did not ask. King David said, “I will pursue my enemies, I will overtake them, and I will not turn back until they are consumed.” This was because he was watchful of those transgressions that a man tramples with his feet and he did not give his enemies room for governance. This is why he always wanted to chase them, so they would not chase him to slander his iniquities and have him fall into their hands.

122) Asa was more fearful. Although he searched in the sins, it was not as much as King David. He only wished to chase his enemies, but not to fight them, and the Creator would kill them. Concerning David, it is written, “And David struck them from the twilight until the evening of the next day.” But Asa chased, and the Creator struck.

123) Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, also sought and said, “I can neither chase nor kill them,” but I will sing, and You will kill them.” This was so because he was not searching in his sins as much as Asa. And the Creator did that for him.

124) Hezekiah, king of Judah, also said, “I cannot sing or chase or make war,” since he feared those transgressions that a person tramples with his feet. What does it say? “And it came to pass that night, that the angel of the Lord went out, and struck in the camp of the Assyrians,” while Hezekiah was sitting at home and the Creator was killing them.

125) And if those righteous feared those transgressions, it is all the more so with the rest of the people in the world. This is why one should be wary of these transgressions and search in them, so the days of evil will not rule over him, for they will not pity him.

126) “And Joseph knew his brothers.” When his brothers fell into his hands, he pitied them because he was whole. But they did not know him because they, Simeon and Levi, came from a harsh judgment. This is why they did not pity him, since those from harsh judgment have no mercy on people when they fall into their hands. They are discerned as those days of evil, which have no mercy over man.

127) This is why David said, “Why should I fear in days of adversity?” It did not say, “feared,” but “fear,” in present tense, that he is still afraid, since he said that he should always fear those days of evil.

“The iniquity of those who follow me surrounds me.” Who are those who surround me? Those who are in faith, in holiness, as it is written, “And his hand holding on to Esau's heel.”

Thus, Esau’s heel was in faith, in holiness, since Jacob was holding it. This is the heel of which it was written, “The iniquity of those who follow me surrounds me” [in Hebrew, “follow” is written the same as “heel”]. These are the footprints of those who always look in that transgression that a man tramples with his feet.

“The iniquity of those who follow me surrounds me” are the shells that are called “heel,” which are mixed with holiness, as it is written, “And his hand holding on to Esau's heel” are appointed over searching and punishing people for those transgressions that he tramples with his feet, as David said, “The iniquity of those who follow me surrounds me,” meaning he is surrounded and observed to see if there is iniquity in him of the kind that one tramples with one’s feet. This is why he was always afraid.

128) “Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as if with cart ropes.” “Cords of vanity” means the iniquity that one tramples with one’s feet and does not take it into consideration. Afterwards, it grows strong and becomes like a cart rope, meaning that that iniquity grows stronger and deflects a person in this world and in the next world.

129) Happy are the righteous who know how to guard themselves from their iniquities. They always search their actions so as to not have an accuser in this world or a slanderer in the next world. The Torah establishes ways and trails for them to walk, as it is written, “Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace.”

And Joseph Remembered the Dreams

130) The Creator made man to be rewarded with His honor, to always serve Him, and to engage in Torah day and night, since the Creator always desires the Torah.

131) And since the Creator created man, He gave him the Torah and taught him her ways. Since he looked in it but did not keep it, and broke the commandment of his Master, he was caught in his iniquity.

132) All those who transgress with one thing in the Torah are caught in it. King Solomon, who was wiser than all the people in the world, breached one thing in the Torah—he had many wives—and caused himself to lose his kingship, when he was made a layman by the hand of Asmodeus.

133) And Joseph, who knew that the Torah said, “Thou shall not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge,” why did he take his brothers through all that he did when they fell into his hands? After all, he knew the law his father had taught him. Indeed, we must not think that Joseph took them through these events to avenge them. Instead, he did all that only to bring his brother Benjamin to him, for his desire was for him. He did not let his brothers fall, for it is written, “Then Joseph commanded to fill their vessels with grain.” He did all that so they would not fall.

134) When the Creator created the moon, the Nukva, He would always gaze at her, as it is written, “The eyes of the Lord thy God are always upon it,” that He always watches it. It is also written, “And told it, prepared it, and also searched it out.”

Then He saw, since the sun, ZA, was illuminated when it watched over the Nukva, for he does not receive vision, Hochma, unless during coupling with the Nukva. “And told it,”? as it is written, the place of sapphire are her stones [the words, “telling” and “sapphire” have the same root in Hebrew], from the words, Sefirot and illumination.

135) “And prepared it,” prepared it with corrections, so it dwells in correction of twelve borders and seventy angels. This means that the twelve borders divide and become seventy angels. And He established it with seven upper pillars, HGT NHYM of Bina, as was said, “The mother lends her clothes to her daughter,” in which to receive the lights and to be in wholeness.

This is so because the whole of the perfection in the Nukva is because she is established with seven upper pillars, which are the vessels HGT NHYM of Bina. Had it not been for that, she would have been unfit for reception of the lights. “And searched it out” means that He searched her so as to always watch over, for all times, and to never stop so the Sitra Achra will not have suction from her.

136) And afterwards He warned man and said, “And to man He said: ‘Behold, the fear of the Lord is wisdom; and to depart from evil is understanding.’” This is so because the fear of the lord, which is the Nukva, is crowned over the lower ones so as to fear and to know the Creator by her strength. This is why she is Hochma. And depart from evil is Bina, the sorting out of the waste so as to not come to holiness with it. Depart from evil is the existence of Bina [understanding], to know and to observe the glory of the High King.

137) It is written, “Treasures of wickedness profit nothing, but righteousness delivers from death.” It is written about those do not engage in Torah and pursue worldly possessions, to collect the treasures of wickedness: “Treasures of wickedness profit nothing,” as it is written, “And those riches perish by evil adventure,” as they are the treasures of wickedness.

138) “But righteousness delivers from death.” Those are the ones who engage in Torah and know her ways, to delve in her. The Torah is called “the tree of life,” and she is called “righteousness,” as it is written, “And it shall be righteousness unto us” because we will keep the words of the Torah.

“But righteousness delivers from death” means actual charity, which one gives to the poor. Righteousness and Torah are all one. The Torah delivers from death since the Torah is the tree of life. And if it is actual righteousness, it saves from death, after the commandment to revive the poor. Thus, the two discernments, Torah and righteousness, are truly two facets, and the reasons they save from death are two discernments.

139) The word “righteousness” is called “peace.” It is written, “He who tills his land shall have plenty of bread; but he that follows vain things shall have plenty of poverty.” How did King Solomon, the wisest in the whole world, said that man should exert to till the land and strain in that and leave the everlasting life?

140) “And the Lord God took the man and placed him in the Garden of Eden, to cultivate it and to keep it.” This is the work of the sacrifices. “To cultivate it” is the upper king, to draw abundant blessings from the upper king, ZA. And “To keep it” is the lower king, to keep the abundance that the lower king, the Nukva, received. The writing speak corresponding to the upper world, ZA, and the lower world, the Nukva.

“To cultivate it” means “Remember,” ZA, and “To keep it” means keeping, the Nukva. This is why with the first tables, which were discerned as ZA, it is written, “Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy,” and in the last tables, discerned as Nukva, it is written, “Observe the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.”

141) “He who tills his land” is the Garden of Eden, the Nukva, which man should make, till, and draw to her blessings from above, from ZA. And when she is blessed and the blessings are drawn upon her from above, man is blessed with her, as well. For this reason, one who tills his land, who works in order to draw abundance to the Nukva, will have plenty of bread—nourishments from above—which he will receive in return for his work, for one who blesses is blessed. “But he that follows vain things,” who clings to the Sitra Achra “shall have plenty of poverty.”

142) “He who tills his land,” as it is written, “a man of faiths, of plentiful blessings,” is the man in whom there is the faith of the Creator. Such was old Rabbi Yisa. Even though he had food for that day, he would not set the table before he asked for nourishments from the Holy King. After he prayed his prayer and asked for his nourishments before the king, he would set the table. He would always say, “We will not set the table until the food is given from the King’s house.”

143) It is written, “But he who makes haste to be rich will not go unpunished,” since he did not wish to engage in Torah, which is the life of this world and the life of the next world.

144) “And Joseph remembered the dreams which he dreamed of them.” Why did he remember those dreams? And what would have happened had he not remembered them?

145) But since Joseph saw that they were coming and bowing down before him, he remembered what he had dreamed of them when he was with them, as it is written, “And, behold, my sheaf arose and also stood upright, and indeed your sheaves stood all around and bowed down to my sheaf,” since when he saw his brothers kneeling before him, as it is written, “And Joseph's brothers came and bowed down before him with their faces to the ground,” then “Joseph remembered the dreams which he dreamed,” that is, he saw that they came true. In other words, “And Joseph remembered the dreams” means that he saw that the dreams came true.

146) “And Joseph remembered the dreams which he dreamed.” He remembered them because then there is no forgetfulness before the Creator, for when a dream is good, one should remember it, so it will not be forgotten. And then it comes true, since as it is forgotten by man, it is forgotten above and does not come true.

147) An unsolved dream is like an unread letter; it has no effect on its receiver. Because he did not remember the dream, he is as one who did not know its solution. Hence, one who has forgotten his dream and does not know it, it will not come true for him. This is why Joseph remembered his dream, so it would come true, so it would never be forgotten from him, and he always awaited it.

“And said unto them: ‘You are spies.’” He remembered the dream but did not tell them a thing. Instead, he told them, “You are spies.”

148) It is written, “For the dream comes through much effort and a fool’s voice with many words.” “For the dream comes through much effort.” There are several helpers for a dream to come true. These are appointed degrees atop degrees up to the dreams. Some of them are true and some of them have truth and falsehood in them, meaning a part of them comes true and a part of them does not come true. But to true righteous, no words of falsehood appear in dreams at all. Rather, they are all true.

149) Daniel dreamed. If there were false words in the dream, why was the book of Daniel written among the Hagiographa? Indeed, when the soul of those true righteous soars, when they sleep, holy things connect to them, which tell them words of truth, valid words, which never lie.

150) King David did not see a good dream. This means that he saw untrue things, since the truth was that he was filled with goodness and mercy from the Creator. But indeed, all his days, he engaged in war and bloodshed, and all his dreams were bad dreams, destruction, desolation, blood, and bloodshed, and not dreams of peace.

151) Can it be that a good man will be shown a bad dream? Of course it can, since King David saw all those evils that are destined to cling to those that have breached the words of the Torah, and those punishments by which they will be punished in the world of truth, so he would have the fear of his Master over him at all times.

This settles the question, “How did he see things that were not real?” He saw them in sinners, for they were real in them. And he was shown them in order to awaken him with fear of heaven. And it did awaken him, as it is written, “God has so worked that men should fear Him.” This is a bad dream, which casts fear over a person. And this is why a righteous is shown a bad dream.

152) A man who saw a dream should open his mouth in it and ask for solution before people who love him, so their desire will rise up to him favorably and they will open their mouths favorably, and their will and word will all be favorable.

The will, the thought, the wisdom [Hochma], is the beginning of everything—the beginning of all the Sefirot. And the word, Malchut, is the end of all, the end of all the Sefirot. Hence, he is in wholeness in the upper one, since here there is the beginning and the end of the Sefirot, and for this reason, all of it persists. Moreover, they ask for mercy for that person, that that good solution that he has resolved will come true.

153) For this reason, the Creator announces a person in his dream, each according to his degrees, as he is, and in the same way that each one will say that the dream will be. This is so because all the dreams follow the mouth, and it is certain that the dream is only for a righteous man, who sees the dream as it should be.

154) When a person sleeps in his bed, his soul exits and roams the world above. It enters where it enters, and several camps of ghosts are there, wandering in the world and meeting that soul. If that man is righteous, the soul rises upwards and sees what it sees. And if he is not righteous, the soul clings to that side and is told words of falsehood or words of soon-to-be things.

155) Hence, a person who is not righteous is told a good dream which is not entirely true, to deflect him from the path of truth. Once he has strayed from the path of truth, he is defiled, for anyone who comes to be purified is purified, and one who comes to be defiled is defiled.

156) Joseph’s name was certainly not mentioned among those banners, as it is written, “The banner of the camp of Ephraim,” and it does not write, “The banner of the camp of Joseph,” since he was proud over his brothers.

157) Joseph is in the male world, Yesod of ZA, and all the tribes are regarded as the female world, the Shechina. Hence, Joseph was not included with them in banners, since he was in the male world.

158) It is written, “We are all one man's sons; we.” It writes, Nachnu [we], and it should have written Anachnu [the letter Aleph is missing in the Hebrew text]. Why is the Aleph missing? Because the covenant, which is Joseph, is not with them, the Aleph departed there and it says, Nachnu, since Aleph is a male, Bet is female, and this is why the Aleph, which is Joseph, departed from there, and the females, the letters Nachnu, remained with the Shechina, in which there are the tribes.

159) Afterwards, they said, “we are upright men,” with the added Aleph. They said, and did not know what they were saying. Because Joseph was there, they completed the word and said Anachnu [we], as it is written, “We, your servants, are twelve brothers.” Thus, Joseph was counted. It turns out that when Joseph was counted, they said Anachnu and when he was not counted, they said Nachnu.

160) The Creator desired all that we have said here, for the Shechina did not part from here, as it is written, “Then those who feared the Lord spoke with one another; the Lord paid attention and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before him.”

And He Put Them All Together in Prison

161) “And he put them all together in prison for three days.” These three days correspond to the three days of Shechem, as it is written, “And it came to pass on the third day, when they were in pain.”

162) “And Joseph said unto them the third day: ‘This do, and live,’” to indicate that he did not do as they did in Shechem, when they caused the men of Shechem to assume the “this” upon themselves, meaning the Nukva, which is the covenant, where the covenant—which is Yesod—is attached to her. And after they had made that covenant, they killed every last one of them.

And what does it say about him? “This do, and live,” meaning he would revive them. For what purpose? The purpose is, “For I fear God,” for He is the guardian of the covenant. And all these events that he had taken them through were only for Benjamin, so they would bring Benjamin.

163) “And they said to one another, ‘In truth we are guilty concerning our brother.’” These are Simeon and Levi, as it was before, as it writes, “And they said to one another ‘Here comes this dreamer.’”

164) Who is that man? This man is Simeon, for here it writes “man” and there it writes, “And, behold, one of the children of Israel came.” As there it is Simeon, here it is Simeon. And because he repented, he wept and regretted it, and he said to Levi, “Truly we are guilty.”

Because he repented, Simeon’s sign was made Taurus. The twelve signs correspond to the twelve tribes, where Aries corresponds to Reuben, and Taurus to Simeon, just as Joseph’s sign is Taurus, as it is written, “As the firstborn of his ox, majesty is his.” Also, Simeon’s sign is Taurus.

He Took Simeon from Them

165) “He took Simeon from them,” so he would not slander him with Levi. This is because when Simeon and Levi bond, they can slander. “And bound him before their eyes.” He bound him only before their eyes; but once they left, he gave him food and drink.

166) Was Joseph’s wish as it is written, “If your enemy is hungry, feed him bread, and if he is thirsty, give him water to drink” and this is why he gave Simeon food and drink, for he was his enemy? If so, how could Joseph, who was righteous, do that? After all, it is written in the end, “For you will heap burning coals on his head,” and the Lord will pay you. It is not the way of a righteous to avenge against his brothers.

167) Indeed, Joseph did not intend it. Rather, he acted and behaved with him in brotherhood, as a man with his brother, and not in any other way. And it was not so only with him, but he did so with all his brothers, as it is written, “Then Joseph commanded to fill their sacks with grain, and to restore every man's money into his sack, and to give them provision for the way,” to behave with them in brotherhood.

168) “Thus says the Lord, though they are at full strength and likewise many, even so, they will be cut off and pass away. Though I have afflicted you, I will afflict you no more.” When the whole people has peace in it, and no dispute is among them, the Creator has pity on them and the judgment does not govern them. And even though they are idol worshippers, if they are at peace, judgment does not rule over them, as it is written, “Joined idols Ephraim let him alone.” This means that even if one is serving idols, meaning idol worshipping, if they are nonetheless united, “Let him alone.”

169) Righteousness is peace, and one who increases righteousness, increases peace above and increases peace below. This is why it is written, “They will be cut off and pass away.” “Cut off’ is like trimming, when they trim their money for charity. It is written, “And also,” to show that as in the beginning it speaks in peace, here, too, it speaks in peace and in righteousness. And why is it written, “Pass away”? This concerns the judgment of the anger, as you say, “Until indignation has passed away.” Here, too, “Pass away” means that the judgment has been lifted from over them.

170) “Thus says the Lord, though they are at full strength.” “Full” are Israel, to whom the Creator gave the everlasting covenant, the circumcision, to always keep it and for man to always be whole through it, from all sides—HGT TM, above and below, which are Netzah and Hod. And if one does not keep it forever, he is flawed in everything, for it is written, “Walk before Me, and be wholehearted.” “Wholehearted” means that as long as the covenant did not come true in him—before he was circumcised—he was flawed.

171) “Though they are at full strength” means that they are observing the commandment of circumcision, to be whole and not flawed. Also, “Many” means “Be fruitful and multiply” in it, for the souls come out to the world only by this covenant. Also, “cut off,” one who is circumcised and has taken that covenant upon himself, “Will be cut off,” from the words “shearing” and “cutting down.” Thus, the filth of the foreskin that was previously in it was removed.

172) “Though they are at full strength” are the sons of Jacob. As long as they were with Joseph, they were whole, for they were together with the covenant, which is Joseph. “Even so, they will be cut off” means that they went and left Joseph and Simeon. “They will be cut off” means pass away. “And pass away” means that then the judgment was present because of them, as it is written, “For the Lord will pass through to smite the Egyptians,” and “Pass” refers to the judgment.

173) There is harsh judgment and there is weak judgment. The harsh judgment is strong, and the weak judgment is weak. And when the weak judgment sucks off the harsh judgment, it grows stronger and becomes strong.

174) When there was judgment over Israel, it was done with a weak judgment, which does not become harder by the harsh judgment. And when the judgment was done to the idol worshipping nations, the weak judgment is intensified by the harsh judgment from above in order to become stronger, as it is written, “For the Lord will pass through to smite the Egyptians.” “Pass” means that it was filled with wrath and anger, for it was intensified by the harsh judgment. Here, too, it says, “Pass,” which means that it was filled with anger. Yet, it is a weak judgment, which does not become harder by the harsh judgment, since the judgment is done on Israel.

When ten gather in a synagogue and one of them is idle, the Creator is angry with him, since Joseph’s brothers were ten. After they parted with Joseph and Simeon, they were left with nine and the Creator was angry, as it is written, “And passed away,” meaning He was filled with wrath [a very similar word to “pass” in Hebrew].

175) When the soul departs this world, it is sentenced by several judgments before it arrives at its place. Afterwards, all those souls should go through the river of fire, which stretches out, and bathe there. And who is it who will rise there and pass the river of fire without fear, as it is written, “Who shall ascend into the mountain of the Lord, and who shall stand in His holy place”? The soul of the righteous passes through without fear, as it is written, “Shall stand in His holy place.”

176) And one who engages in righteousness in this world and gives of his money to charity, passes through the river of fire and is not afraid. And the announcer proclaims about that soul, “Though I have afflicted you, I will afflict you no more,” for one who has been rewarded with passing through the river of fire is no longer under judgment at all.

177) Why did all this about Joseph and his brothers have to be written in the Torah? Indeed, the Torah is true and all her ways are holy, and there is not a word in the Torah that does not possess sublime and holy secrets, and ways for people to strengthen themselves.

178) The Creator made it for man to strengthen himself in the Torah and to walk on the path of truth and toward the right side, and not to the left side. And because people need to walk to the right side, they should increase the love between each other. This is because love is considered “right,” and there will not be hatred between each other, which is considered left, so as to not weaken the right—the place to which Israel cling.

179) This is why there is a good inclination and an evil inclination. And Israel need to make the good inclination prevail over the evil inclination through good deeds. If a person leans to the left, the evil inclination overcomes the good inclination. And in one who is flawed, the evil inclination complements his sin, since this villain is complemented only through people’s sins.

180) For this reason, man must be wary so the evil inclination will not be complemented by his sins. And he should always be watchful, for the good inclination must be complemented with continuous wholeness, and not the evil inclination. This is why it is written, “Do not say, ‘I will repay evil,’” since through hatred you will intensify the left and complement the evil inclination. Rather, as it is written, “Hope for the Lord and you will be salvaged.”

181) “Do not say, ‘I will repay evil,’” as it is written, “And those who repay evil for good.” This is because those whom He benefitted will not repay him evil, as it is written, “He who returns evil for good, evil will not depart from his house.” And even those whom He did harm must not repay Him with evil for the evil He had done them. Instead, “Hope for the Lord and you will be salvaged.”

182) This verse is clarified in the righteous, Joseph, who did not seek to repay his brothers with evil when they fell into his hands, as it is written, “Do not say, ‘I will repay evil,’” but hope for the Lord and you will be salvaged. This was because he was God-fearing, as it is written, “This do, and live; for I fear God,” and he was always hoping for the Creator.

183) It is written, “Counsel in the heart of man is like deep water.” This is the Creator, for He gives counsel, as He brought reasons to unfold the events on the world through Joseph, to keep that sentence that He sentenced the world to famine. It is also written, “But a man of understanding will draw it out.” This is Joseph, who discovered these deep ones that the Creator sentenced for the world in the solution of the dream.

184) Joseph did not settle for not repaying his brothers with evil. Instead, he performed true mercy and truth with them. But such are always the ways of the righteous; this is why the Creator always has pity on them, in this world and in the next world.

185) “Deep water—a counsel in the heart of man.” This is Judah, when Judah approached Joseph concerning Benjamin. “But a man of understanding will draw it out” is Joseph, who was then revealed to his brothers.

186) Rabbi Abba was sitting at the gate of the city of Lod. He saw a man coming and sitting on a protrusion that bulged at the side of the mountain. He was weary from the road and he sat and slept there. At that time, he saw a serpent approaching him, and a varmint came out and killed the serpent.

When the man woke, he saw the serpent dead in front of him. The man rose and the protrusion he had been sitting on was torn off the mountain and fell to the valley below it. But the man was saved. Had he been late standing up by even a minute, he would have fallen to the valley along with the protrusion and he would have been killed.

187) Rabbi Abba came to him and told him: “Tell me, what do you do?” for the Creator brought you these two miracles, saved you from the serpent and from the protrusion that fell. And that was not for nothing.

188) He told him. “Through my whole life, never has anyone done me that I did not make peace with him and forgave him. Moreover, if I could not make peace with him, I did not go to my bed before I forgave him and to all those who afflicted me, and I did not hold any grudge the whole day for that evil which he had done to me. And I do not suffice for that, but even more, from that day forth, I have tried to do them good.”

189) The deeds of this one are greater than Joseph’s, for with Joseph, the wrong doers were his brothers, and he certainly should have pitied them because of the brotherhood. But what this one did, when he did this with all the people, is greater than Joseph. He is worthy of the Creator bringing him a miracle over a miracle.

190) “He who walks in integrity walks securely” is a man who walks in the ways of the Torah. “Walks securely” means that the damagers of the world will not be able to harm him. “But he who perverts his ways will be found out.” Who will be found out? One who has strayed from the path of truth, and seeks to collect from his friend, who wishes to pay him evil for evil, and breaches the verse, “Thou shall not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge.” “Will be found out” means that it will be apparent to the eyes of all the litigants, that they will not lose the image of that person, so as to bring him to the place where they will avenge him, an eye for an eye. This is why it is written, “Will be found out.”

191) One who walks in the path of truth, the Creator covers him, so he will not be found out and will not be recognized by the litigants. “But he who perverts his ways will be found out,” and will be recognized by them. Happy are those people who walk in the path of truth. They walk safely in the world and they are not afraid, neither in this world nor in the next world.

And the Men Were Afraid because They Were Brought into Joseph's House

192) Woe unto people, for they do not know and do not observe the ways of Torah. Woe unto them when the Creator seeks to sentence them for their deeds, and the body and soul will rise to account for their deeds before the soul parts with the body.

193) And that day is judgment day. It is a day when the books in which all the deeds of people open and the litigants are present. At that time, the serpent rises to bite him, and all the organs are agitated by him, and the soul parts with the body. It walks and roams and does not know which way it will go and to which place it will be elevated.

194) Woe unto that day, a day of anger and wrath is that day. Hence, one should vex one’s inclination daily and remind it of that day when he rises to the sentence of the King, and that it will be brought under the earth to rot and the soul will part with it.

195) One should always anger the good inclination over the evil inclination and exert after it. If it parts with him, good. If not, let him engage in Torah, since nothing breaks the evil inclination except the Torah. If it leaves, good. If not, let him remind it of the day of death, to break it.

196) We should observe here. After all, this is the evil inclination, the angel of death. Will the angel of death break before the day of death? He kills people, which means that his joy is to put people to death which is why he always deflects them, to draw them toward death.

197) Indeed, one should remind him of the day of death to break the heart of man, for the evil inclination is present only in a place where there is joy of wine and pride. And when man’s spirit is broken, it parts with him and is not over him. This is why one should remind it of the day of death, so his body will break and it will depart.

198) The good inclination needs the joy of Torah, and the evil inclination needs the joy of wine, adultery, and pride. This is why man needs to always anger it from that great day, judgment day, the day of account, when all that protects a person are the good deeds that he does in this world so they will protect him at that time.

199) It is written, “And the men were afraid because they were brought into Joseph's house.” Just as they were all heroes, all strong, and one youth who brought them to the house of Joseph caused them to fear, when they come to the Creator to seek judgment for man, one should be several times more fearful.

200) For this reason, one must be watchful in this world and strengthen himself in the Creator, and put his trust in Him. This is because even though he sins, if he wholeheartedly repents, the Creator is strong—to pass over his qualities and forgive him, and he will be able to strengthen in the Creator as though he had never sinned at all.

201) Because the tribes sinned with the stealing of Joseph, they were fearful. Had they not sinned, they would not have been afraid at all, since man’s iniquities break his heart and he has no strength at all. Why is this so? The good inclination breaks with it and has no strength to overcome the evil inclination. This is why it is written, “Who is the man who is afraid and fainthearted?” He fears the iniquities in his hands, which break man’s heart.

202) In the selling of Joseph, the Creator repaid for the iniquities of the tribes for several generations. This is because nothing is hidden from the Creator and He repays from generation to generation, and the judgment always stands before Him until He repays, and the judgment is where it should be.

203) Where do we learn that? From Hezekiah. Hezekiah sinned in that sin where he revealed the secrets of the Creator to other nations—idol worshipping peoples—when he should not have revealed them. And the Creator sent Isaiah and told him, “Behold, the days come, when all that is in your house, and that which your fathers have stored up till this day, shall be carried to Babylon.”

204) See what that iniquity of revealing that which was concealed had done. Because it was revealed, the other place—Sitra Achra—was given a place for dominance, where it should not have dominated him. This is why there is blessing only in a place of concealment. All that is concealed, blessing is upon it. Once it is revealed, a place for dominance is given to the other place, to rule over him.

205) However, it is written, “Jerusalem has sinned gravely; therefore, she has become repulsive; all who honored her despise her because they saw her nakedness.” This is the kingdom of Babel, since it is from there that the gift was sent to Jerusalem, as it is written, “At that time Merodach-Baladan the son of Baladan, king of Babylon, sent envoys with letters and a present to Hezekiah.”

206) It is written of them, “Greetings unto Hezekiah, king of Judah; greetings unto the Great God; and greetings unto Jerusalem.” And since the letter came from him, he contemplated and said, I did not do it right, greeting the servant before greeting his master. He rose off his chair and took three steps, took back his letter, and wrote another in its stead. And this is what he wrote, “Greetings to the Great God, and greetings to Jerusalem, and greetings to Hezekiah.” This is respectful of Him.

207) But afterwards they despised her, “Because they saw her nakedness,” which Hezekiah showed them. Had it not been for that, they would not have despised her afterwards. But because Hezekiah was righteous, the thing was delayed and did not come in his days, as it is written, “For there will be peace and truth in my days.” But afterwards, the Creator repaid that iniquity with his sons after him.

208) Similarly, that sin of the tribes stood for a later time, since the judgment above cannot govern them until the time to repay arrives and He collects from them. For this reason, all who have sins in their hands are always fearful, as it is written, “And thou shall fear night and day.” Hence, “And the men were afraid, because they were brought into Joseph's house.”

And Saw Benjamin

210) That looking, when he looks during the prayer, causes him a heart disease. A heart disease is Satan, one who is always standing over man to slander him above and below.

211) “A desire that comes is a tree of life.” One who wishes for the Creator to grant his prayer should engage in Torah, which is the tree of life. And then desire comes. What is desire? It is a degree that all the prayers in the world are in its hands—the Nukva—and it brings them before the upper king, ZA. “Desire that comes,” since it comes before the upper king for coupling, to complement the wish of the invocator, to grant him his wish.

212) “Hope deferred makes the heart sick.” This is a place where that prayer is given in another place, where it is not needed, and that place is called “a heart disease.” And it is extended from the heart until it is given from hand to hand. And sometimes, salvation does not come at all because it is extended and stretches from hand to hand in all those appointees, so they will bring it down to the world.

213) “Desire that comes is a tree of life.” This is the hope that is not extended among those appointees and the chariots from hand to hand. Rather, the Creator gives immediately because when it is extended among those appointees and chariots, several litigants are given permission to observe and to look at his sentence before they give him his salvation. But what comes out of the King’s house and is given to man, whether he is worthy or unworthy, is given to him immediately. This is, “Desire that comes is a tree of life,” which means that it is given to him immediately.

214) “Hope deferred” is Jacob, whose hope for Joseph was extended for a long time. And “Desire that comes is a tree of life” is Benjamin, since it was only a short time, meaning it was not a long time from the moment Joseph sought him until the time he came to him.

It is written, “And he lifted up his eyes, and saw Benjamin… his mother's son.” Why does it write, “His mother’s son”? It is because he had his mother’s form in him, meaning his form was similar to Rachel’s form.

215) It is written, “And Joseph saw Benjamin with them,” and it is written, “And he lifted up his eyes, and saw Benjamin his brother.” What is the seeing here? Indeed, he saw Benjamin in the spirit of holiness. Part of it was with them on earth, and in the part of Benjamin and Judah there is the Shechina, since he saw that in the part of Judah and Benjamin was the Temple. And this is, “And Joseph saw Benjamin with them,” meaning he saw him with them. And Joseph, who was his brother, did not see himself with them in that part where there was the Temple.

216) Here, too, “He lifted up his eyes, and saw Benjamin his brother, his mother's son,” he saw the building of the Temple that is in his part. Afterwards, it is written, “And Joseph hurried because of his pity for his brother and he wished to cry; and he went into the room and wept there,” for he saw the ruin of the Temple.

217) When the Temple was ruined and was being burned down, all the priests rose to the roofs of the Temple and all the keys of the Temple were in their hands. They said, “Thus far we have been Your treasurers; henceforth, take what is Yours.” It is as it is written, “The burden against the Valley of Vision; what then troubles you, that you have all gone up to the housetops?”

218) The Valley of Vision is the Shechina, who was at the Temple and all the people in the world were nursed by her with nursing of prophecy. And although all the prophets were prophesying from another place, from Netzah and Hod of ZA, they were still sucking their prophecy from within her, from the Nukva. This is so because Netzah and Hod of ZA were bestowing in the Shechina, and the Shechina was giving illumination of Netzah and Hod to the prophets. Hence, it is called, “Valley of Vision” after the prophecy. And it is a vision since it shows all the upper colors, since the four colors of ZA, which are HB TM, are seen only in her. This is why she is called “a vision.”

219) “What then troubles you, that you have all gone up to the housetops.” When the Temple was ruined, the Shechina came and rose in all the places where it dwelled before, and she wept for her dwelling place, for Israel who went into exile, and for all the righteous and pious who were there and were lost. It is written, “Thus says the Lord, ‘A voice was heard in Ramah, Lamentation and bitter weeping, Rachel weeping for her children.’” Rachel is the name of the Shechina, and the Creator asked the Shechina, “What then troubles you, that you have all gone up to the housetops”?

220) What is “you have all”? It is to include with her all the other armies and chariots, who all wept with her for the ruin of the Temple.

221) He asked her, “What then troubles you?” She said before Him, “My sons are in exile, the Temple is burnt, and You do not know. And I, what have I here?” She opened and said, “You who were full of cheer… Let me weep bitterly; do not rush to comfort me because of the plundering of the daughter of my people.” And the Creator told her, “Thus says the Lord, ‘Restrain your voice from weeping and your eyes from tears, for your work shall be rewarded.”

222) Since the day the Temple was ruined, there has not been a day without curses. This is because when the Temple was standing, Israel were worshipping and sacrificing offerings and sacrifices, and the Shechina was on them at the Temple like a mother crouches over her sons. And everyone’s face were bright until there were blessings above and below. There was not a day without blessings and joy, and Israel dwelt safely in their land and the whole world was nourished because of them.

223) Now that the Temple is ruined and the Shechina has gone into exile with them, there is not a day without curses, the world is cursed and there are no joys above and below.

224) The Creator will raise the assembly of Israel, the Shechina, from the dust, and to make the world happy in everything,” as it is written, “Even them will I bring to My holy mountain, and make them joyful in My house of prayer.” And it is written, “They shall come with weeping, and with invocations will I lead them.” As it is written in the beginning, “She weeps bitterly in the night and her tears are on her cheeks,” so afterwards they will return from exile weeping, as it is written, “They shall come with weeping.”

The Morning Was Light

225) “The morning was light, the men were sent away, they and their donkeys.” If they were going and being sent, why do we need to write in the Torah, “They and their donkeys”? Because it is written, “And take us for slaves with our donkeys,” it writes, “The men were sent away, they and their donkeys,” to tell us that they and their donkeys did not stay there.

226) It is written, “And Abraham got up early in the morning and saddled his donkey.” Abraham's morning, Hesed, was shining, being on the tribes by his merit, since Abraham's merit protected them, and they went in peace and were saved from the judgment. This is so because at that time, the judgment stood over them to avenge them, and only the merit of that morning of Abraham protected them, and they were sent from the place of judgment, for it did not control them at that time.

227) “And as the light of the morning, when the sun rises, a morning without clouds, through sunshine after rain, grass springs out of the earth.” This is the light of that morning of Abraham, the light of Hesed. “When the sun rises” is Jacob’s sun, the light of Tifferet, as it is written, “And the sun rose upon him.” “A morning without clouds,” for that morning, the light of Hesed, is not so cloudy because the judgments have no grip on it. Rather, “Through sunshine after rain” means the shine that comes from the rain, from Isaac, the light of Gevura. And that rain produces grass from the earth.

228) “And as the light of the morning.” On that light of Abraham's morning, the light of Hesed, the sun, Jacob, will shine, for his light is like that light of Abraham's morning, for it is Tifferet that shines in covered Hassadim, which are extended from the light of Hesed.

“A morning without clouds,” since that morning is not dark, but bright, for when the morning, the light of Hesed comes, the judgment does not govern at all, but everything shines on the side of Abraham, which is the right side. “Through sunshine after rain” is the side of Righteous Joseph, who showers the earth, meaning Yesod, which bestows upon the Nukva, to produce grass and all the abundance of the world.

229) When the night comes and spreads its wings on the world, several spirits, appointed on avenging the transgressors of the law and manners, are intended to come out and rule the world. And several litigants awaken on several sides and govern the world. Since the morning comes and shines, they all depart and do not govern, and each comes to its usual place and returns to its place.

230) “The morning was light” is Abraham's morning, the governance of the right. “And the men were sent away” are the litigants, who governed at night. “They and their donkeys” are the spirits appointed in order to avenge the transgressors of the law and manners. These are mares that come from impurity, who are not holy. And they are not governed and are not seen when the morning comes. And these mares appointed on the transgressors of the law come from the phase of donkeys.

231) There are no high degrees without right and left, mercy and judgment, degrees over degrees, holy from the side of holiness and impure from the side of impurity. And all are degrees over degrees, one atop the other.

It follows that white mares are from the side of holiness, as it is written, “You who ride white donkeys, who sit in judges’ throne.” So how is it said here that they are from the left side and are not holy? He says about that that there are white mares from the side of holiness and right, and white mares from the side of impurity and left.

232) And wherever Abraham's morning awakens in the world, all the forces of the left depart and do not govern, since they have no sustenance on the right side, only on the left. Hence, in the morning when the domination of the right arrives, they must depart. And the Creator made day and night to impart each with its appropriate discernment: on the day, the governance of the right, and at night, the governance of the left.

233) The Creator is destined to light for Israel that sun which He has concealed since the day the world was created because of the wicked in the world, as it is written, “From the wicked their light is withheld.”

234) And the Creator concealed that light since when it first came out, it shone from the end of the world to its end. Since it gazed upon the generation of Enosh—the generation of the flood, the generation of Babel, and on all the wicked—He concealed that light.

235) Since Jacob came and clung to that appointee, Esau’s minister, and bit him on his thigh and he limped, it is written, “And the sun rose upon him.” This is the sun He has concealed, since there is healing in this sun, to heal his thigh. Afterwards, he was healed with that sun, as it is written, “And Jacob came whole,” meaning whole in his body, for he had been healed.

236) This is why the Creator is destined to reveal that sun and to shine for Israel, as it is written, “But unto you that fear My name shall the sun of righteousness arise.” This is Jacob’s sun, in which he was healed. At that time, all will be healed, for when Israel rise from the dust, there will be several handicapped and several blind among them, and the Creator will shine that sun upon them, to be healed in it.

237) Then that sun will shine from the end of the world to its end and there will be healing for Israel, and idol worshipping peoples will be burned in it.

Two Sons Were Born to Joseph Before the Year of the Famine Came

238) Each day when the sun rises, a single bird awakens on a tree in the Garden of Eden and calls three times, the scepter straightens up, and the announcer calls out loudly, “The laws of choice tell you who sees and who does not see, who is in the world without knowing why they exist, and who does not observe the honor of their Master.” The Torah stands before them and they do not delve in it. It would be better for them not to be created than to be created. Why should they rise without wisdom? Woe unto them when the days of evil awaken upon them and they are expelled from the world, as it is written, “See, I have set before you today life and good, and death and evil, and choose life.”

It is known that at dawn, in the end of the night, when darkness thickens and there is the coupling of ZON—a coupling from which the light of day arises, from the third shift—a woman speaks with her husband. And the illumination of the coupling is extended from ZA to the Nukva in three lines that are extended in three times and in three places—Holam, Shuruk, and Hirik. Hence, these three lines are called “three places” or “three hours,” and here they are called “three times.”

It was said, “Each day when the sun rises, a single bird awakens.” A bird is the Nukva that has awakened for a coupling, to emit the light of day, “On a tree in the Garden of Eden,” with ZA, who is called “the tree of life” in the Garden of Eden. “And calls three times,” receiving three lines from him, called “three times.” And “The scepter straightens up.” This is the scepter of judgment, which straightens up at the beginning of the coupling and governs with the ruling of the left line that awakens at that time.

“And the announcer calls out loudly, ‘The laws of choice tell you,’” as it is written, “and choose life.” This is so because then, with the illumination of the coupling, appears the light and the pleasantness that stem from the middle line, which is the tree of life, meaning life and good, as well as the measure of harsh punishments that come to the wicked, those who do not wish to cling to the middle line but to the left, meaning death and evil. Then, “Therefore choose life. Thus, through those two types of illuminations the choice of life appears to the righteous. This is why they are called, “The laws of choice.”

And the herald says, “He among you who does not see.” Seeing is Hochma. And those who cling to the left and not to the right see and do not see, since the Hochma on the left does not shine without clothing in the light of Hassadim on the right. Hence, even though there is Hochma there, for they see, they still do not receive Hochma for lack of clothing in Hassadim. This is why they do not see.

“Who is in the world without knowing why they are here.” This is said to those who cling to the right, and not to the left, who have sustenance in the world through the light of Hassadim, but do not know why they exist, meaning they lack GAR, since illumination of the right without left is VAK without a Rosh, and they do not know why they exist. It turns out that both those who cling to the left, and those who cling to the right without the left, who do not sook at the glory of their Master, those will lack Hassadim and these will lack Hochma. And all this came to them because the Torah stands before them and they do not exert in it.

The Torah is the middle line, ZA, which unites the two lines in one another. And because they are on the edges, either on the right or on the left, and do not try to adhere to the middle line that stands before them.

Therefore, it is better for them not to be created than to be created. Why will they rise without understanding? Because they will not be rewarded with Mochin, which are extended from YESHSUT. Woe unto them when the days of evil awaken upon them, when there is coupling of ZON. In the beginning of the coupling, the left governs, regarded as the days of evil. Then the bitter punishments on the left will appear, and they will be uprooted from the world.

239) What are days of evil? Can it be that these are days of old age, it is not so because if one is rewarded with sons and grandsons, they are days of good.

240) Rather, they are as it is written, “Remember your Creator in the days of your youth, before the evil days come.” They are not days of old age, for when the Creator created the world, He created it with the letters of the Torah, and each letter came before Him until all the letters existed in the letter Bet, for it is Beracha [blessing], and this is why the world was created with it. And the letters evolved by 231 kinds of anterior and 231 of posterior, and all are poised to create the world with them, after having received the blessing from the letter Bet.

241) Since the letters evolved and came in the alphabet, where the two letters Tet and Reish unite, the Tet rose and did not sit with the Reish until the Creator reproached her and told her, “Tet, why are you rising instead of sitting in your place?” She told Him, “You have made me a letter at the beginning of the word Tov [good], and the Torah begins with me Ki Tov [that it was good], as it is written, ‘And God saw the light, that it was good.’ How can I bond and sit with the letter Reish, which is the beginning of the word Ra [bad/evil]?”

Here we must remember the order of elicitation of the three lines of ZA in their root in Bina, in the form of Holam, Shuruk, Hirik. First, Malchut rose to Bina, by which the ELEH of Elokim fell from her and only the MI of Elokim remained in her, meaning VAK without GAR. This remaining is Holam and right line that shines in Hassadim.

Afterwards, during Gadlut, the ELEH rose once more and connected with the MI, and GAR returned to Bina, illumination of Hochma. However, it was blocked extensively, since the Hassadim departed there and Hochma cannot shine without Hassadim. And the ELEH that returned are the point of Shuruk and are considered left line due to the harsh judgments that are extended from them.

These judgments continue until a coupling is made on the screen of ZON that rose there and a middle line emerges on it. After it diminishes the GAR of Hochma from the left line, it includes them in one another, so the right is included with the left and acquires GAR of Hochma, and the left is included with the right and acquires the clothing of Hassadim.

This completes the three lines in Bina through the screen of ZA, which are the point of Hirik. And since ZA caused these three in Bina, ZA, too, obtains these three lines and his Mochin are completed. Thus, the two lines, right and left, are called Tet and Reish here, where Tet is the right line, Holam, and Reish is the left line, Shuruk.

This is why it was said, “When the Creator,” who is Bina, “created the world,” which is ZON, meaning when Bina drew the Mochin of ZON in the form of, “three come out of one; one is rewarded with all three,” He created it with letters, in three lines. Since the two letters, Tet and Reish, came to unite as one when the letters ELEH, which are left line, and the letter Reish, returned to Bina and connected with the letters MI, which are right line and the letter Tet.

At that time, the Tet rose and did not settle, since the Tet, which is the right line and Hassadim, moves away from the left line, which is the letter Reish, and does not settle with her.

Thus, there was a dispute between them until the Creator, ZA, middle line, reproached her and by the force of the screen of the middle line, the GAR of the left line were diminished, and all the more so the GAR of the right line.

242) “He told her, ‘Return to your place, for you need the letter Ra, since you will both be included in man, whom I wish to create, and then he will be a created being. But you will be to the right and she, to the left.’ Then the letters Tet and Reish returned and settled in each other together.”

After the GAR were diminished by the force of the screen of ZON, the lock, the act of mitigating Malchut in Bina took place there, and the key was extended, by which the Hochma shines in the left once more, but in the form of VAK of GAR. Then the right, too, which is the letter Tet, receives illumination of Hochma from the left. Thus, the Tet must connect and receive illumination of Hochma from the Reish. Otherwise, she would remain in VAK without GAR because of the screen of ZA, and then Adam was created, by the force of this incorporation.

He said, “But you are to the right and she is to the left.” That is, the Tet will be to the right and the Reish, to the left, meaning that the left is regarded as having judgments extended from it, by which it determines that judgments will be drawn out of the Reish.

There is a sublime matter about it, which must be elaborated. First, we should understand the connection between the Creator and the letter Tet, when the letter Tet did not wish to unite with the Reish and the Creator forced her. The thing is that it is the nature of the spiritual that the root governs the branch and the branch annuls itself before it. This is why the Tet did not wish to unite with the Reish and receive Hochma from her, since then the Reish would be the root and the Tet would be the branch, and it would be annulled before the Reish. For this reason, she moved away from her and did not wish to receive Hochma.

But the Creator wished for her to receive Hochma from the Reish, so that through this incorporation, man would receive Mochin of GAR from her. This is why He established it that following the illumination of the Reish, when the letters ELEH rise back to Bina, harsh and bitter judgments would spread from her, and that for this reason, the Reish would rush to unite with the Tet, to draw Hassadim from her, so her Hochma would clothe in the Hassadim of the Tet and would be able to shine. Thus, the Tet became the root of the Reish once more, since without her light of Hassadim, the Reish would not be able to shine because of all the harsh judgments that are extended by the force of her illumination.

However, you are to the right and she is to the left; you will be the right—and the root—and she will be the left—and the branch. By that, during the illumination of the Reish, when harsh and bitter judgments are extended, the Reish will reunite with you, to receive Hassadim and clothing from you. Thus, even though she would receive Hochma from her, she would remain her root, since the Reish must immediately be included in her and receive from her the light of Hassadim.

Now you see that in the beginning, the coupling is in a sentence that the right cannot be included and receive Hochma from the left before the left shows its sentence, for fear that it will not be annulled before it. However, when the left shows its sentence, it can receive Hochma, since then the left must be included in his Hassadim and he becomes the root of the left once more. Thus, that illumination of Hochma, dispensed from the left, is precisely from its sentence, since the right cannot receive the Hochma from him in any other way.

243) At that time, the Creator separated their illuminations from one another—one shines in the absolute good, and the other in the absolute bad. And He created days and years for each of them, twenty-eight times—these to the right and those to the left, fourteen times for the good, and fourteen times for the bad. Those on the right are called “the days of good,” and those on the left are called “the days of evil.” Solomon said about that, “Before the evil days come,” which divert a person through the sins that he had sinned.

Because the days of good and days of bad were created, the Tet and Reish were reunited so as to be included in man. This is so because after the days of evil were created, under the domination of the Reish, which is illumination of the left, the Tet can now sit with the Reish and receive Hochma from her, and impart Mochin of GAR upon man.

244) This is why David said, “Why should I fear in days of evil, when the iniquity of my foes surrounds me?” “Days of evil” means that they are extended during the illumination of the left. They are called “days of hunger,” “years of hunger,” and “illumination of the left” and those are called “days of satiation, “years of satiation,” and “illumination of the right.”

245) This means not bringing out the fountain of the holy covenant, so as to not copulate during days of famine, in the year of the famine. This is why Joseph, the covenant, blocked his fountain in the years of the famine and did not give it room to multiply in the world, as it is written, “And two sons were born to Joseph before the years of famine came.” Thus, while the year of the famine rules, man must block his fountain of holy covenant so as to not give room for the left to multiply in the world.

There was a correction above that the fountains of bounty will be blocked during the illumination of the left and judgments would spread in the world so that thus the left would be included in the right and would annul before it—to receive Hassadim from it. It is similar with man below, when the expansion of the judgment from the left is apparent: In the days of hunger, he should resemble the upper one, block his fountain, and avoid reproduction.

This is so because if he produces many offspring during the domination of the left, by this act below, he increases and multiplies the power of the left above, and will not be included in the right. For this reason, while the year of famine governs, one must block the fountain of his holy covenant, so as not to give room for the left to multiply in the world.

246) This is a very high secret. During the year of famine, which is the illumination of the left, man must block his fountain and not reproduce because she governs. This is so for two reasons:

1. If he does not block his fountain, he causes extension of Ruach from the left side unto the newborn.

2. It gives that side room for the side of impurity to grow over the side of holiness. This causes the left side to not be annulled in the right. At that time, should the right receive Hochma from it, the left will be the root and the right—the branch. This will increase the side of impurity, which sucks from the left, over the holiness in the right.

Also, it is written, “Under three things the earth quakes, and under four, it cannot endure: under a slave when he reigns, and a fool when he is filled with bread.” By this act, one causes what is presented in this verse, that the servant will rule, the villain will be filled with bread, and the hated woman will be married. The shell will receive abundance from the holiness and the maidservant will be heir to her mistress. The shell will inherit the Shechina because the left has become the root and the right—the branch.

247) For this reason, Joseph the Righteous, who is the covenant, rose and blocked his fountain in the years of famine, so as to not mingle with the left whatsoever and to not give her room to rule over the right. It is written about one who opens his fountain at that time, “They have betrayed the Lord, for they have begotten strange children.”

This is because the children that one begets during the year of the famine are alien children for he draws Ruach from that side unto the side of the newborn. And he certainly betrayed the Creator because he gives room for the left to grow over the right, thus betraying the name HaVaYaH. Hence, happy are the holy Israel, who did not replace a holy place for a place of impurity.

248) This is why it is written, “And two sons were born to Joseph before the year of the famine came.” This is so because from the time the year of the famine ruled, meaning the left without the right, it blocked its fountain and raised its source, to not give children to the side of impurity and to avoid replacing a holy place with a place of impurity, meaning to raise the impurity over the holiness. And one should wait for one’s Master to come and rule the world, as it is written, “And I will wait for the Lord, who hides His face.”

249) Happy are the righteous who know the ways of the Creator and keep the commandments of the Torah to go by them, as it is written, “For the ways of the Lord are right, and the righteous will walk in them, and the wicked will fail in them,” and it is written, “But you who adhere to the Lord are alive every one of you today.”

250) This is the reason why the Creator warned Israel to sanctify, as it is written, “And you be holy for I am holy.” “I” is the Creator, the holy Kingdom of Heaven, Nukva. The other Malchut—of idol worshipping nations—is called “other,” as it is written, “For you shall not bow down to any other god.”

251) “I” is the government of this world and the next world, and everything depends on it, on the Nukva. And one who clings to that “I” has a part in this world and in the next world.

252) And one who clings to that “other,” the Nukva of the idol worshippers, is lost from the world of truth and has no part in the next world. But he does have a part in the impurity in this world, since that other Malchut, of the idolaters, has several armies and litigants appointed to govern this world.

253) And this is why Elisha is considered “other,” for he descended and clung to that degree—Malchut of the idolaters, called “other.” He was expelled from the next world and was not given permission to repent and was suspended from the world of truth. This is why he was called, “other.”

254) Therefore, one should separate oneself from all the sides, to not be defiled by that side, and to be rewarded with this world and with the next world. This is why the holy Nukva is called “blessing” and the Nukva of idolaters is called “curse.”

255) Hence, during the years of famine, when the Nukva of idolaters rules, one should not show oneself on the street and avoid opening one’s fountain and beget, giving sons to the other god.

256) Happy is a man who is vigilant and walks in the path of truth and always adheres to his Master, as it is written, “And cling to Him, and you shall swear by His name,” in the Nukva, who is called “name.” And “you shall swear by His name” means to adhere to faith, Nukva, which is called “Seven,” after the seven Sefirot, HGT NHYM, which she receives from Bina.

257) There are seven degrees above, in Bina, above everything. They are the wholeness of the faith, and the complete wholeness of the Nukva is to rise and to clothe these seven degrees, HGT NHYM of Bina. And there are seven degrees below them, the Nukva herself, which are one bond and one connection. These are seven lower ones within these seven upper ones, for they are all one.

This is why it is written, “Seven days and seven days, fourteen days.” All are one and one connection, since when the seven of the Nukva are in wholeness, they rise and clothe the seven of Bina and connect as one. This is why it is written, “And you shall swear by His name,” indicating sevens [in Hebrew, “swear” is written similar to “seven”], from above and from below, to cling to the two sevens, the seven of Bina and the seven of the Nukva, and to unite them as one.

258) It is written about the one who unites these in those, the lower seven in the upper seven, “The Lord will open unto you His good treasure the heaven.” These are treasures of above—the seven of Bina, and of below—the seven of Nukva, since the seven days of Bina and the seven days of Nukva are all one, as it is written, “His good treasure the heaven.” “His good treasure” is one, and He, “The heaven.” This means that when the seven of Nukva rise and clothe the seven of Bina, they are called together, “The heaven,” for then they are one—one treasure, as it is written, “Seven and seven spouts,” and they are one.

259) Rabbi Hiya and Rabbi Yosi were walking along the road. They saw a man approaching, robed in a robe of Mitzva [precept], a Tzitzit, with weapons tied under it. One said, “This man, is one of the two: either he is a complete righteous, who wraps himself with a Talit with Tzitzits even on the road, or he deceives people, for he is girded with arms, meaning he is a robber, and he robes himself with a Talit with Tzitzits to fool people, to trap them in his net.”

260) “But the high sages said, ‘Judge every person to the side of merit.’ And we learned that one who heads for the road and fears robbers should aim for three things: a gift, a war, and a prayer. From where do we have this? From Jacob, who aimed for these three and girded himself for a gift, for war, and for prayer, as it is written. He sent a gift to Esau, and divided the camps in two, lest Esau would come and strike him, which is for war. Also, he prayed to the Lord, “Deliver me, I pray Thee, from the hand of my brother,” which is prayer. And this man, walking on the road, has a wrapping of a Mitzva, for prayer, weapons for war, and since he has those two, there is no need to chase after her, to know if there is the gift in him, for because he has two, he certainly has the third in him, as well.”

261) When he approached them, they greeted him but he did not reply. One said, “Thus, one of these three things that should be in him is not, since he did not prepare himself for the gift, for peace [also “Hello” in Hebrew] is included in the gift and he does not return the greeting.” Perhaps he is engaged in his prayer, or whispering his study so he does not forget it.

262) The walked together, and that man did not speak with them. afterward, Rabbi Hiya and Rabbi Yosi slipped aside and engaged in Torah. When that man saw them engaging in Torah, he approached them and greeted them.

263) He said to them, “Sirs, what did you suspect me of when you greeted me and I did not reply?” One told him, “We thought perhaps you were saying a prayer or whispering your studies.” He told them, “The Creator will sentence you to a scale of merit.”

264) “But I will tell you. One day, I was walking along the road when I came across a man and greeted him. That man was a robber who rose up against me and pained me. Had I not prevailed over him, I would have been sorry. Since that day, I have vowed to greet only righteous people, and only if I first know that he is righteous, for fear that he could pain me and overcome me by force. And because it is forbidden to greet an evil person, as it is written, ‘There is no peace, says the Lord to the wicked.’”

265) “But when I saw you, and you greeted me and I did not reply, I was suspecting you were not righteous, since I did not see in you a Mitzva that could be seen on the outside. Hence, I did not return your greeting. And besides, I was engaged in my studies and could not return your greeting. But now that I see that you are righteous, the road is paved before me.”

266) “A Psalm of Asaph; God is only good to Israel, to the pure of heart.” The Creator made the right, and He made the left, to lead the world. One is called “good,” “right,” and one is called “evil,” “left.” Man includes both and approaches the Creator with everything, as we learned, “In both of your inclinations—the good inclination and the evil inclination.”

267) The evil, which is the left, contains the idol worshipping nations. It was placed on their side to be defiled in, since they are gentile at heart and gentile in flesh. But concerning Israel, it is written, “Only good to Israel.

268) Is He good to everyone? No, but to those who were not defiled by the evil, as it is written, “To the pure of heart,” since this good and this evil—the good is only for Israel and the evil is only for the idol worshipping nations. “Only good to Israel”—to cling with it to the Creator. By that, Israel adhere to the upper one, ZA, in faith, which is Nukva, so that all will be one, for by attaining the good, they are rewarded with uniting ZON as one and adhering to them.

269) Rabbi Yosi said, “Happy are we for not mistaking you, for it is the Creator who sent you to us.” Because the good is for Israel, Israel have a share in this world and in the next world, and to see the vision of glory eye to eye, as it is written, “for they shall see, eye to eye, the Lord returning to Zion,” blessed be the Lord, Amen and Amen.

  1. In Hebrew, the words, “haste,” “accept,” and “appease” have the same root.